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COMPONENT SKILLS For the AGILE LEADER. AMEDD C&S CAPTAINS CAREER COURSE. OUTLINE. Critical Thinking Mind-Sets / Mental Models Barriers to Critical Thinking Creative Thinking Exercise Conclusion Questions References. CRITICAL THINKING. 2-part process: 1) Thinking about thinking

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component skills for the agile leader
COMPONENT SKILLS For theAGILE LEADER

AMEDD C&S CAPTAINS CAREER COURSE

outline
OUTLINE
  • Critical Thinking
  • Mind-Sets / Mental Models
  • Barriers to Critical Thinking
  • Creative Thinking
  • Exercise
  • Conclusion
  • Questions
  • References
critical thinking
CRITICAL THINKING

2-part process:

1) Thinking about thinking

2) Evaluating the results of that thinking

critical thinking model
CRITICAL THINKING MODEL

Requires critical thinking?

Make decision / Clarify position / Use judgment

Stimulus requiring judgment

NO

ASSUMPTIONS

POINT OF VIEW

INFERENCES

YES

Egocentric tendencies

EVALUATION OF INFORMATION

IMPLICATIONS

CLARIFY CONCERN

Argument analysis

Impact of biases and traps

egocentric tendencies relatively common in military culture
EGOCENTRIC TENDENCIESRelatively common in military culture
  • Egocentric memory
  • Egocentric myopia
  • Egocentric righteousness
  • Egocentric blindness
perception why can t we see what is there to be seen
PERCEPTION: Why Can’t We See What Is There To Be Seen?

ONCE

PARIS

BIRD

IN THE

IN A

IN THE

THE SPRING

A LIFETIME

THE HAND

critical thinking model1
CRITICAL THINKING MODEL

Requires critical thinking?

Make decision / Clarify position / Use judgment

Stimulus requiring judgment

NO

ASSUMPTIONS

POINT OF VIEW

INFERENCES

YES

Egocentric tendencies

EVALUATION OF INFORMATION

IMPLICATIONS

CLARIFY CONCERN

Argument analysis

Impact of biases and traps

mind sets aka mental models
MIND-SETS aka MENTAL MODELS
  • Patterns of expectations on what to look for, what is important, and how to interpret what is seen that predisposes thinking to a certain way
  • Mind-set is akin to a screen or lens through which one perceives the world
implications
Implications
  • People form impressions on the basis of very little information, but once formed, they do not reject or change them unless they obtain rather solid evidence
  • Limit the adverse impact of this tendency by suspending judgment for as long as possible as new information is being received
  • If information does not fit into what people know, or think they know, they have great difficulty processing it
critical thinking model2
CRITICAL THINKING MODEL

Requires critical thinking?

Make decision / Clarify position / Use judgment

Stimulus requiring judgment

NO

ASSUMPTIONS

POINT OF VIEW

INFERENCES

YES

Egocentric tendencies

EVALUATION OF INFORMATION

IMPLICATIONS

CLARIFY CONCERN

Argument analysis

Impact of biases and traps

barriers to critical thinking
BARRIERS TO CRITICAL THINKING

Cognitive Bias

Psychological impediments

Logical fallacies

cognitive bias
COGNITIVE BIAS
  • Mental errors caused by our simplified information processing strategies
    • Availability Heuristic: likelihood of event assessed by ease with which examples of that event can be brought to mind
    • Representative Heuristic: make judgment based on how much item represents known item – sample size bias; regression to the mean
    • Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: develop estimates from initial anchor and adjust from there to yield the final answer
psychological impediments
PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPEDIMENTS
  • Loyalty, herd instinct, groupthink
  • Prejudice, stereotypes, scapegoats
  • Wishful thinking, mirror-imaging, self-deception
  • Rationalization, denial
logical fallacies
LOGICAL FALLACIES

Common fallacies in MDMP

  • Appeal to (unqualified) authority, fear, masses
  • Slippery slope
  • Straw man
  • Arguments against the person
  • False dichotomy
  • False cause
  • Red herring
mental tools
MENTAL TOOLS
  • Questioning Assumptions
  • Seeing Different Perspective
    • Thinking Backwards
    • Devil’s Advocate
  • Stimulating Creative Thinking

BLUF: A questioning attitude is a prerequisite to a successful search for new ideas

exercise break
EXERCISE BREAK

This is not a test of intelligence.

exercise rules of engagement
EXERCISE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
  • You will be asked to answer 2 questions that require reasoning
  • These are not trick questions
  • The information provided is true and complete – take it at face value
  • You will have 60 seconds for each question
  • This is not a test of intelligence – jot your answers on a piece of paper
question 2
QUESTION 2

He’s drinking lemonade.

Rule: You must be at least 21 to drink alcoholic beverages.

Which reveler(s) must you check at the minimum to ensure compliance?

She’s 23.

He’s drinking wine.

She’s 19.

exercise results
EXERCISE RESULTS

Check the A to see that the number on the reverse is even.

Check the 7 to see that the letter on the reverse is not a vowel.

The rule is not violated no matter what number is behind the B or what letter is behind the 4.

Check the wine drinker to see that he’s at least 21.

Check the 19 y/o to see that her drink is non-alcoholic.

The rule is not violated no matter what the 23 y/o is drinking or how old the lemonade drinker is.

conclusion
CONCLUSION

“Technological advances alone do not constitute change. The most dramatic advances in military operations over history have been borne of ideas – ideas about warfighting, organization, and doctrine. The Army’s most critical asset will not be technology; it will be critical thinking.”

AUSA Torchbearer National Security Report, March 2005

any questions
Any Questions?

Components Skills for the Agile Leader

references
REFERENCES
  • Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking: A Fundamental Guide for Strategic Leaders, Colonel Stephen J. Gerras, Ph.D., Director, Leadership and Command Instruction, U.S. Army War College, 1 June 2006
  • Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Richards J. Heuer, Jr., Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999
  • How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process, Floyd J. Usry, Jr., LtCol., USMC, Naval War College, 17 May 2004
  • Critical Thinking Competency Standards: Standards, Principles, Performance Indicators, and Outcomes with a Critical Thinking Master Rubric, Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder, www.criticalthinking.org, 2008
  • Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery and Manipulation, Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder, www.criticalthinking.org, 2008
resources on the web
RESOURCES ON THE WEB
  • Foundations for Critical Thinking – http://www.criticalthinking.org/
  • Creativity, Thinking Skills, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making – http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-thkg.htm
  • Tools, Techniques, Methods, Quotes on All Matters Creative – http://creatingminds.org/
  • Online Writing Lab at Purdue – http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/