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Causes, Course and Effect of the Civil War. Main Causes. Slavery Constitutional Disputes- Federal Gov. v. State’s rights Economic Differences Industrialized North and Agricultural South Political blunders (mistakes) and extremism on both sides. North v. South. North

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Main causes
Main Causes

  • Slavery

  • Constitutional Disputes- Federal Gov. v. State’s rights

  • Economic Differences Industrialized North and Agricultural South

  • Political blunders (mistakes) and extremism on both sides

North v south
North v. South

  • North

  • Industrial: Factories, lot of people, railroad track

  • Lot of immigrants

  • South

  • Agricultural, rural

  • Produced cotton using slavery

  • Few immigrants

  • And very little industries

Wilmot proviso 1846
Wilmot Proviso- 1846

  • Proposed to ban slavery in territories acquired from Mexico

  • North favored bill

  • They felt that more slave states would give the south too much power in Congress.

  • Southern opposed

  • Act never passed

Missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise

  • In 1849, California asked to enter the Union as a free state

  • South of the line Missouri Line, slavery was legal

  • President Zachary Taylor agree, he believed that California’s climate and terrain were not suited for slavery.

  • This event caused the South to question whether they should be part of the Union!!

Compromise of 1850 and the fugitive slave act
Compromise of 1850 and the fugitive slave act

  • In 1848, gold was founded in Sierra Nevada, CA.

  • “CA Gold Rush”- Californians entered the Union as free slave state.

  • Union had 15 slave state and 15 free states.

  • Sen. Henry Clay of Kentucky proposed the Compromise of 1850:

  • that the rest of newly land from Mexico be organized without restrictions on slavery.

  • Asked Congress to pass stricter fugitive slave laws.

    - Fugitive Slave Act: declared that all slaves must be brought back to their masters. This created a “hate feeling” between the Northerners to the Southerners.

  • Denied jury trial, right to testify in court, const. rights

Underground railroad

  • Underground railroad helped may African Americans escaped from the South… the “conductors” transported slaves in secret.

  • The most famous was Harriet Tubman, who was herself a runaway.

  • After she escaped , returned to the South 19 times to guide slaves people along the Railroad, slaveholders offered a bounty of $40,000 for her capture.

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)

  • Explained the horrors of slavery

  • Several Southerners believed it was

    based on lies

Dred scott v sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford

  • In March 1857, the Sup. Court released its opinion in the case.

  • Dred Scott and wife lived in the free state of Illinoi, but when he was returned to the state of Missouri as a salve.

  • They sue the slave-owner on they idea that they were “free” before.

Kansas nebraska act
KANSAS- Nebraska act;jsessionid=BB2E46BEAE56C45076673F56141CAE68

Kansas nebraska act1
Kansas-nebraska act

  • Introduced by Stephen Douglas:

  • Created the territories of KA & NE

  • opened new lands

  • repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820

  • Pop. Sovereignty to KS & NB

  • Northerners irritated b/c it permitted the possibility of slavery in an area where it had been prohibited.

Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas”

  • Conflict b/w pro & anti slavery forces in KA after the passage of KS-NB Act

  • The first settlers into the territory came from MO, many brought their slaves with them

  • Thousands of people from MO crossed the border to KS, helping to elect a proslavery legislature

  • Pro & anti slavery forces attacked each other.

  • Anti-slavery senator Charles Sumner was severely beaten by a southern representative on the floor of the Senate.

  • Pres. Franklin Pierce was required to send troops to restore order in 1856

  • KS eventually became a free state/ admitted to the Union in 1861

Lincoln v douglas
Lincoln v. Douglas

  • Douglas ran for re-election of State in IL- opposed slavery but favored popular sovereignty

  • Rep. Abraham Lincoln ran against

  • During the 2nd debate Douglas proposed Freeport Doctrine: people in the western territories to get around the Dred Scott decision by electing representatives who would not enforce slave property laws. (reinforced the idea of popular sovereignty)

  • Many Southerners turned against Douglas who wanted to become president in 1860.

Election of 1860
Election of 1860


  • Southern states began to leave the union …. CONFEDERACY

  • Capital was in Montgomery , AL… later moved to Richmond, VA

  • They elected Jefferson Davis as President


  • 1. Diff. b/w North and South

  • 2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • 3. Bleeding Kansas

  • 4.Dred Scott

  • 5. Election of 1860

How did the civil war begin
How did the Civil war begin?

  • South took over forts

  • In April 1861, the Confederacy “South” demanded the Union to surrender in Fort Sumter, in SC

  • Pre. Lincoln refused, but in March 1861 the Confederacy attacked the fort and seized it.

  • Lincoln decided to go to war

North v south1
North V. South

  • more states 2/3

  • 22 million

  • 90% manufacturing of goods

  • 20,000 miles railroad

  • Could finance the war

  • 11 states

  • 9 million – 3.5 were slaves

  • few industries

  • much less railroads

  • Difficulty financing the war

  • they knew the land where they were fighting

  • Kept military leaders- Thomas J “stonewall” ad Robert E. Lee

  • Used to riding horses…etc

War strategies
War strategies

  • North on South

  • Anaconda Plan- North would squeeze the South using naval blockade

  • By getting control of the Mississippi River, cutting off supplies of food.

  • South on North

  • Defensive war- proposed by Jefferson Davis, defend the South by putting up an aggressive defense army.

What political problems did both lincoln and davis face
What Political problems did both Lincoln and Davis face?

  • Both presidents suspended the act of habeas corpus- court order that says a person who is jailed has to appear before the court to determine why is being held.

  • This allowed police to arrest and hold dissenters (rebels) without trial.

What was the significance of the emancipation proclamation
What was the significance of the emancipation proclamation?

  • By July of 1862, Lincoln had already decided to use his powers to free all slaves in the states at war with the Union

  • At the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, Lincoln issued a proclamation that all slaves in all states against the Union would become free.

  • He asked the army and militia to recognize and maintain the freedom of slaves living in these areas.

  • However, this only applied to slaves in Confederate control outside of Union control.

  • Therefore, Union armies continue to fight for slavery

Gettysburg address
Gettysburg address

  • In 1863, Gen. Robert Lee decided again to invade the North

  • Lee’s forces crashed with the Union at Gettysburg, PA

  • After 3 days of fighting the Union defeated Lee’s forced

  • Each side lost more than 50,000 soldier, and convinced Great Britain and France not to support the “South”.

  • Pre. Lincoln delivered a speech honoring the dead and asked Americans to rededicate themselves to preserving the Union.

  • “all mean are created equal”

Civil war consequences
Civil war: consequences

  • Taxes for the first time

  • Southern economy collapsed… no more slavery!

  • It was the first total war …more than 600,000 soldiers died

  • More than 500,000 wounded

  • About 10% of the nation’s population served in the war

  • 13 amendment- abolished slavery

  • American red Cross- created by Clara Barton- helped injured veterans and poor people after the war.

Generals during the war
Generals during the war..

  • Gen. Lee surrendered and was captured

  • Pres. Lincoln was shot by Southern supporter, John Wilkes Booth


  • period of rebuilding the South after the war.

  • Lasted for 12 years (1865-77)

  • African-Americans right to vote (13 amendments)

  • Pre. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction:

  • Pardoning former confederate leaders if they could swear loyal to the Union

  • Ten Percent Plan- called for a states to be readmitted to the Union if 10% of the population voted on the plan.

  • 4 states applied to be admitted but a small groups of “Radical republicans” blocked them

  • They wanted the South to be punished ; proposed Wade-Davis Bill in which asked for 50% instead of 10%....vetoed by Lincoln b/f he died.

Congressional reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan

  • Freedmen’s Bureau- helped African Americans- food, shelter, jobs, hospitals, and schools

  • 14th amendments- full citizenship , could not be deprived from life, liberty, and property

  • Reconstruction Act of 1867- override 10%plan…now states had to write new Constitutions in which they gave African Americans the 14 amendments rights.

  • Radical Republicans- impeached Pre. Johnson but was not removed from office.

Political parties
Political Parties Lincoln’s plan

  • Scalawags- white Southerners and small farmers who supported the Republican Party b/w they did not was wealthy planters to regain power.

  • Carpetbaggers- Northerners who moved to the South to help rebuilding.

  • Freedmen- (former black slaves)- eager to vote and to take part of political process.

Southern economy after the civil war
Southern Economy after the Civil war Lincoln’s plan

  • A.A. wanted to own and farm their own land

  • Congress never gave them land

  • Southerners planters wanted to return to plantation system.Therefore turned to two way system to keep A.A. under their control

  • 1. System of Sharecropping- to survive, many formers slaves became sharecroppers. A system in which landowners gave a few acres of land to their farm worker.

    - Many slaves became sharecroppers

  • 2. Tenant farming- rented land from the landowners for cash.

    - Cotton was no longer in demand/ the price for cotton fell

Opposition to reconstruction
Opposition to Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan

  • KKK- used violence and intimidation to keep blacks and other Republicans from voting in the South.

  • Redeemers- Southern white who supported racism and the diversification of the Southern economy to focus on other crops and industrialization.

Why did reconstruction end
Why did Reconstruction end? Lincoln’s plan

  • By mid 1870s- Supreme Court decisions weakened the power of the 14 and 15 amendments

  • Many radical Republicans passed away or moved on to other national issues.

  • Compromise of 1877- Republicans selected Rutherford B. Hayes / Democrats Samuel H. Tilden

  • Tilden won the popular vote but not the electoral vote.

  • Compromise: democrats allowed Hayes to become President after Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, and end Reconstruction.

  • Therefore, Democrats took control of the government in the South again…

  • They restricted the right of African Americans, passed literacy tests in order to vote, and poll taxes.

  • Reconstruction failed to gain equal rights fro African Americans

  • Led to Jim Crow Laws- violence against African Americans