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KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health. Disarikan oleh : soemarno , psl ppsub 2013. Apakah bahaya lingkungan ?. ' Environmental hazard ' is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment.

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apakah bahaya lingkungan
Apakah bahaya lingkungan ?

'Environmental hazard'is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment.

This term incorporates topics like pollution andnatural hazardssuch as storms and earthquakes.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide3

Sumber: http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/properties/module_4/index.htm…. Diunduh  16/12/2012

bahaya dan risiko
BAHAYA DAN RISIKO

BAHAYA = Hazard:

Is “a factor or exposure that may adversely affect health” it is a qualitative term expressing the potential of an environmental agent to harm the health of certain individuals if the exposure level is high enough and/or if other conditions apply.

Risiko

Is “the probability that an event will occur, the probability of unfavorable outcome e.g that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. It is the quantitative probability that a health effect will occur after an individual has been exposed to a specified amount of a hazard.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

kontaminasi
KONTAMINASI

Contamination -- Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use.

Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pencemaran
PENCEMARAN

Pollutionis the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystemi.e. physical systems or living organisms.Pollution can take the form ofchemical substances, orenergysuch as noise, heat, or light energy.

Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.

Pollution is often classed aspoint sourceornonpoint source pollution.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

polutan pencemar
POLUTAN = PENCEMAR
  • A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil.
  • Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant:
    • Sifatkimianya,
    • Konsentrasinya
    • Persistensinya.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide8

POLUTAN & KONTAMINASI

"Pollution" is generally used when you're talking about something big, like a whole environment, or an entire river, or something else really large.

"Contamination" can refer to very small quantities of something - contaminated food, medicine, drinking water supply; it can also mean a very small amount of foreign or harmful material, such as bacterial contamination, or a toxin, especially when it's not readily visible or noticeable.

For instance, a surgical suite could be contaminated simply because someone walks into it when they're not sterile, and it would be completely invisible.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide9

BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN BAGI KESEHATAN ?

ANY external factor that negatively affects your health can be considered an environmental health “hazard." Common environmental health hazards include indoor and outdoor air pollution, and contaminated food and water.

Less commonly discussed environmental health hazards include lack of sidewalks, crime, insufficient physical activity, poor nutrition, social isolation, noise, stress, and the lack of aesthetically pleasing living environments.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

jenis bahaya kesehatan lingkungan
BahayaTradisional

Disease Vectors

Infectious agents

Housing and Shelter

Drinking Water & Sanitation

Indoor air Pollution

Dietary Deficiencies

Reproduction

Injury hazards

Bahaya Modern

Tobacco smoking

Alcohol and drugs

Transport hazards

Environmental pollution

Outdoor air pollution

Chemical hazards

Occupational Hazards

Unbalanced Diet

Stress

JENIS BAHAYA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

jalur masuknya bahaya eh
Jalurmasuknyabahaya EH
  • Inhalation
    • airborne contaminants
  • Absorption
    • penetration through the skin
  • Ingestion
    • eating
    • drinking

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide12

PAPARAN BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

  • Acute
    • Short term period between exposure and onset of symptoms
  • Chronic
    • Long time period between exposure to an agent and the onset of symptoms

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide13

JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

There are five types of environmental hazards:

  • Chemical; Physical; Mechanical; Biological; Psychosocial

The system of environmental health. The human living environment consists of home, work and recreational environments. The interaction between these environments and human activities results in various types of hazards that may adversely affect human health. (Source: adapted from Bassett, 2004)

Sumber: http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=452284&extra=thumbnail_id392363134945......  15/12/2012

slide14

BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

Pesticides; Acids and Bases; Metal fumes ; Solvents; Gases

Sumber:. http://aquaticpath.umd.edu/appliedtox/module1-termin.html.....  15/12/2012

slide15

BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide16

BAHAYA BIOLOGIS

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  • Insects; Rodents; Animals
  • Microorganisms:
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Parasites
    • Yeasts
    • Molds

Biological risk assessment and risk management

Sumber: …. Diunduhdari: http://www.biosafety.be/CU/RA_Fiches/Intro_and_menu.html......  17/12/2012

slide17

BAHAYA FISIKA

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

TipeBahayaFisika:

  • Noise and Vibration
  • Ionizing Radiation
  • Non-ionizing Radiation
  • Light, Lasers
  • Pressure
  • Extremes of Temperature

Characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Sumber: gtcceis.anl.gov …. Diunduhdari: ......18/12/2012

slide18

BAHAYA PSIKOSOSIAL

Common Signs of Anxiety

Anxiety itself could also be a result of a deeper physiological or psychological cause. That is why the possible manifestations that are associated with anxiety are numerous and can be classified into the specific areas of the body affected. Anxiety is often difficult to identify in a person. Extreme cases present with severe symptoms. This makes stress or anxiety exercises and treatments an essential for anyone going through anxiety attacks.

Read More Here: http://relieveanxietynow.com/common-signs-of-anxiety/

  • Uncertainty
  • Anxiety
  • Lack of feeling of control over one own life
  • Homesickness
  • Isolation

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide19

APAKAH STRESS ITU?

  • Stress is a human response to stressors
  • Stress is a specific event or situation that causes a mental or psychological reaction.
  • Stress is a process resulting from the interaction between humans and the environment.
  • Stress process consists of 2 stages:
    • Deciding whether or not an event (stressor) poses a hazard
    • Appraising the possibilities of dealing with the situation.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide20

EFEK STRESS THD KESEHATAN

  • PenyakitKardiovaskular
    • Hypertension
    • Ischemic heart diseases
    • Increase heart rate
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Asma Bronchial

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

bahaya lingkungan yang serius
BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN YANG SERIUS
  • Polutan Udara
    • Indoor air pollutants
    • Outdoor air pollutants
  • Kelangkaan air & Polutan air
  • Bahaya makanan
  • Bahaya rumah hunian
  • Bahaya permukiman
  • Bahaya serangga & Rodents
  • Pestisida
  • Bahaya lingkungan global

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

efek kesehatan akibat pencemaran udara
EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT PENCEMARAN UDARA

Climate change and health   Climate change has a range of complex interlinkages with health. These include direct impacts, such as temperature- related illness and death; the health impacts of extreme weather events; the effect of air pollution in the form of spores and moulds.

Sumber: Diunduh dari: http://www.gits4u.com/envo/envo7.htm......  15/12/2012

bahaya kesehatan yang penting do we face
BAHAYA KESEHATAN YANG PENTING? Do We Face?

The effects of environmental exposures on health depend on the social settings in which the exposures occur and on individual behaviours. Behavioural risk factors are sometimes closely related to physical risk factors (e.g. hygiene is related to sanitation) and modify the health impacts of the physical risk factors. Indeed, the specific contributions of related behavioural and physical risk factors sometimes cannot easily be separated, as for example in the risk factor "water, sanitation and hygiene".

Sumber: https://apps.who.int/peh/burden/9241546204/9241546204chap2.htm.diunduh 15/12/2012

apakah pencemaran udara
APAKAH PENCEMARAN UDARA?
  • Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life
  • Can occur indoor or outdoor, in cities and across continents and even globally
  • Air pollutants consist of: gaseous pollutants, odors, suspended particle matter (dust, fumes, mist and smoke)

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

polusi udara di dalam ruangan
POLUSI UDARA DI DALAM RUANGAN
  • Indoor air can be defined as any non-industrial indoor space where a person spends a period of an hour or more in any day.
  • This can include the air space in the office, classroom, motor vehicle, shopping centre, hospital and home.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pencemar udara dalam ruangan
PENCEMAR UDARA DALAM RUANGAN
  • second-hand tobacco smoke;
  • airborne mold and mildew;
  • lead-impregnated dust from old paint cockroach shedding;
  • dust mite particles;
  • combustion gases released by stoves, heaters, candles and fireplaces; chemicals released by
    • dry cleaned clothes;
    • cleaning products;
    • room deodorizers;
    • office supplies;
    • paints and sealers;
    • new furniture and pressed wood;
    • personal care products; and
    • pesticides.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

sumber pencemar indoor
SUMBER PENCEMAR INDOOR

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pencemar udara outdoor
PENCEMAR UDARA OUTDOOR
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Particulate Matter (PM)
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO(
  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs(

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

sumber pencemar udara
SUMBER PENCEMAR UDARA
  • Transportation (Mobile sources )
    • Motor vehicles, rail, shipping, aviation.
  • Industry sources
    • Power stations, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing.
  • Power Plants
  • Central heating
  • Incineration of domestic wastes

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

efek kesehatan pencemar udara
EFEK KESEHATAN – PENCEMAR UDARA
  • Irritation of nose, eye, and throat
  • Respiratory diseases (Bronchitis, Asthma, cough, nausea …etc.)
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Toxicity (CO)
  • Decrease of pulmonary function and restricted activities)
  • Cancers (Benzene)
  • Neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders (Pb).
  • kidney/liver damage, CNS disorders (Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium)
  • Increased hospital admissions and ER visits.
  • Premature death

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide31

EfekPolusithdKesehatan

Polusi Udara

Polusi Air

Bakteri

Parasit

Bahan Kimia

Kontaminasi Tanah

Ozon

Pb

Pestisida

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide32

EFEK KESEHATAN POLUSI UDARA

Piramida efek kesehatan

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pengendalian polusi udara
PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA
  • Reduce emissions (conservation and improved efficiency); e.g., refineries
  • Collect, capture, and retain pollutants before entering the atmosphere; e.g., gas stations
  • Regulating automobile exhaust using catalytic converter, control of sulfur dioxide through scrubbing
  • Varied pollutant-control strategies and new and improved technologies

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

risiko biasanya dinyatakan dalam peluang
Risikobiasanyadinyatakandalam “Peluang”
  • Risiko
  • Probability and possibility
  • PendugaanRisiko
  • PengelolaanRisiko

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

pengendalian polusi udara1
PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA
  • Regulatory control
    • Standards (process and emission)
  • Engineering control
    • Ventilation (general and local)
    • Process change
  • Work practice control
  • Administrative control
  • Personnel protective equipment

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pentingnya kesehatan air
PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR
  • There are 4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths-that's a death every 14 seconds.
  • Most diarrheal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhea by 35%.
  • Insect-related diseases Malaria, is the biggest killer, causing 1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease.
  • Parasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the majority world population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year.
  • After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea-worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pentingnya kesehatan air1
PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR
  • Every day, diarrheal diseases cause some 6,000 deaths, mostly among children under five: in 2001, 1.96 million people died from infectious diarrheas; 1.3 million were children under five.
  • Diarrheal diseases have killed more children in the past ten years than all the people lost to armed conflict since World War II.
  • Between 1,085,000 and 2,187,000 deaths due to diarrheal diseases can be attributed to the 'water, sanitation and hygiene' risk factor, 90% of them among children under five.
  • With simple hygiene measures such as washing hands after using the toilet or before preparing food, most of these deaths are preventable.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide38

BAHAYA AIR & EFEK KESEHATAN

  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • physical

Sumber:. Diunduh dari: http://www.idph.state.ia.us/WhatWeDo/Profiles.aspx?category=Environmental%20Hazards......  15/12/2012

slide39
Volatile organic compounds

Hydrophobic organic compounds

Endocrine disruptors

Petroleum Additives

Pesticides

Heavy metals

Other inorganic elements

Acids/bases

Oxidants/reductants

Chlorination by-products

Combustion by-products

BAHAN BERBAHAYA DALAM AIR

39

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide40

PENYAKIT DARI AIR

Typhoid fever ; Giardia ; Dysentery ; Cholera ; Diarrhea (caused by a variety of pathogens) ; Hepatitis ; Polio ; Worms

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

Classification of water-related diseases

Sumber; http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jwhow01e/2.1.html

jasad pathogenik
JASAD PATHOGENIK

41

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

slide42

JASAD PATHOGENIK

42

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

penyakit yang berhubungan dnegan air
PENYAKIT YANG BERHUBUNGAN DNEGAN AIR

43

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

tingkat penyakit risikonya
TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA

44

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

pendugaan risiko pengelolaan risiko
PENDUGAAN RISIKO & PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

PENDUGAAN RISIKO

PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

slide46

TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Identifikasi bahaya

Apa bahaya itu?

Hazard identification

What is the hazard?

Analisis komparatif risiko

Bagaimana dibandingkan dg risiko mlainnya?

Risk reduction

How much should it be reduced?

Probability of risk How likely is the event?

Risk reduction strategy

How will the risk be reduced?

Consequences of risk

What is the likely damage?

Financial commitment

How much money should be spent?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Fig. 17-3, p. 440

kontrol pencemaran air
KONTROL PENCEMARAN AIR

Pencegahan pencemaran

Meminimumkan pencemaran

recycling and re-use; treatment; encourage cleaner production technologies; encourage good housekeeping

Disinfection (Chlorination)

Disposal or discharge of waste water

only under specified conditions; precautionary approach; differentiated approach; polluter pays

47

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduhdari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012