The Qur’an Qur’an Hadith Islamic Jurisprudence © Karen Devine 2008
Qur’an • The Qur’an is central to Islam. • It is the revelation of God to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. • The Qur’an should be the first and the last word a person hears. • It is considered unalterable and literal. • It has 114 chapters or suras, divided into 6000 verses.
Qur’an • The Qur’an is treated with the greatest respect: • Hands are washed before reading it • It is wrapped in a special cloth • No other books are shelved higher than it. • It is chanted in personal prayer.
Qur’an • Most Muslims know a chapter, some memorise the whole book. • The Qur’an is also the source of: • Islamic doctrines and ethics • Islamic law • The intellectual aspects of Islam. • Muhammad did not write the Qur’an but received it and scribes wrote it. • Professional memorisers were used for the scribing of the Qur’an.
Qur’an • The collection of sura were pieced together by the first and third caliphs. • The final Qur’an is arranged in order of decreasing length. • There are no variations of the Qur’an text. • It is written in Arabic and recitations should only occur in Arabic.
Qur’an The Qur’an contains: • Rules for living • Stories of the Prophets • Passages on the meaning of life • Details on fasting • The ritual of the Hajj • Criminal law • Social and economic policy.
Hadiths • A hadith is a narration on the life of the prophet. • This is distinguished from the sunna which is the details of the actual life of Muhammad. • Hadith include the sayings of the prophet. • The Hadith are secondary to the Qur’an in terms of their religious importance.
Hadiths • There are 2 kinds of Hadith: • Sacred Hadith: Words of God uttered by Muhammad yet not part of the Qur’an. • Noble Hadith: Details of the actions and words of the prophet. • There are 6 key collections of Hadith known as the “accurate six”. • The sayings of the Hadith make an authoritative guide to the sunna of Muhammad and the life that Muslims should seek to imitate.
Islamic Jurisprudence • Surrendering to the will of Allah is the key Islamic value. • There are 4 ethical sources for Islamic values: • The Qur’an- a recitation • Sunna- the life of Muhammad • Ijma- the consensus views of Muslim scholars • Qiya- analogies drawn from the Qur’an
Islamic Jurisprudence • Together these 4 values form the guiding principles of Islam. • A Muslim must “try one’s hardest” (Jihad) to establish good. • Jihad is the use of personal energy to sustain a Muslim way of life.
Islamic Jurisprudence • Shari’a law or “path to the waterhole” regulates Muslim life on issues including: • Morality • Hygiene • Etiquette • Inheritance • Commerce
Islamic Jurisprudence • All Muslim actions are either halal (allowed) or haram (forbidden). • There are 3 severe offences that can be committed by a Muslim: • Kufr: disbelief or ingratitude to Allah. • Shirk: Associating anything with Allah such as icons or ideas. • Tughyan: Not trusting in Allah and acting in a contrary way to nature.
Question Time • Research behaviours which are halal and haram.