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Healthy Trees, Healthy Tennessee

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  1. Healthy Trees, Healthy Tennessee • neCityTreBenefits SCityTeBenefits • Threats to Tennessee Trees • Host Trees in Tennessee • What You Can Do • Pests and Diseases of Greatest Concern to TennesseeThreats to Tennessee Trees • Host Trees in Tennessee • What You Can Do • Pests and Diseases of Greatest Concern to Tennessee • City Tree Benefits • Threats to Tennessee Trees • Host Trees in Tennessee • What You Can Do • Pests and Diseases of Greatest Concern to Tennessee

  2. City Tree Benefits • Trees and green spaces are essential components of beautification, sustainability, and healthy community initiatives in many Tennessee cities. • Urban forests and trees are an integral part of our ecosystems and provide numerous benefits including: • Property values increase by 5% to 10% (U.S. Forest Service) • Quality of life and enjoyment for city residents and urban wildlife • Shade and green space • Improved local air quality and water quality • Community aesthetics and character

  3. City Tree Benefits Urban trees also help to: • Minimize local temperature extremes • Reduce cooling costs by up to 20% • Clean the air and mitigate climate change • Reduce stormwater run-off and costs

  4. What You’ll Learn Today about Urban Tree Pests • Which trees are threatened in your area • Why this matters to Tennessee cities • How to identify each bug or disease • Tree symptoms • Survey tips and how you can help

  5. Host Trees in Tennessee Threatened trees include: • Black walnut • Ash • Maple • Eastern & Carolina Hemlock • Willow • Oak • Apple • Elm • American Basswood • Horse Chestnut • Birch • Black Poplar

  6. Threats to Tennessee Trees & Economies Across the nation, cities face the ECONOMIC impacts of urban tree pests and pathogens • Services provided by a single urban tree in Tennessee equal $2.25/year • There are 284 million urban trees in Tennessee = $639m • Tennessee trees remove pollutants, filter water, store carbon and saved $66 million in energy costs in 2009 Nate Berg, The Atlantic Magazine Annual U.S. Impact of urban tree loss due to pests/pathogens: Local governments: $2 Billion Homeowners: $1 Billion Reduced property values: $1.5 Billion (USFS)

  7. Pests and Diseases of Greatest Concern to Tennessee Gypsy Moth Emerald Ash Borer Asian Longhorned Beetle Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Thousand Cankers Disease

  8. Asian Longhorned Beetle(ALB) • Large 1” – 1 ½” long body • Shiny black with around 20 white spots • Very long white and black striped antennae • Can have blue-ish feet • Beetles most often seen in summer (June – August) • Commonly abbreviated ALB

  9. Asian Longhorned Beetle Bluish tinge to feet Shiny black body White-banded antennae .75 - 1.5 inch body length Bright white splotches Female Male

  10. Range Map: Asian Longhorned Beetle

  11. Asian Longhorned Beetle ALB exit holes are straight bore and roughly dime-sized Where to find & tree symptoms: Most commonly on maples & willows Can also infest aspen, birch, elm, box elder, buckeye , horse chestnut, katsura, London plane tree, mountain ash, black poplar, and ash. Chew dime-sized holes in trees

  12. Asian Longhorned Beetle Female beetles chew shallow divots to lay eggs Frass and sawdust can collect below beetle holes or even on the ground Old egg site (2+ yrs) Recent egg site Fresh egg site with sap Sawdust collecting on branch

  13. Asian Longhorned Beetle Heavily damaged tree Tips & Tricks Exit holes are easier to find than egg-laying sites Exit holes are straight bore and deep Damage is easiest to spot in the sun Trees usually die back first along the middle & top branches Infestation can cause patches of trunk to appear black and covered in sap

  14. Asian Longhorn Beetle: Tricks & Tips • Adult beetles are present June through August • Tree damage is easier to spot when there are no leaves on the trees, i.e. fall/winter surveys • Bore deeply into trunk and can survive in tree interior for long time • Vectors: wood products, firewood, humans

  15. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) • Commonly abbreviated EAB • Small ½” long beetle • Bright metallic green color • Coppery-red underside • Adults usually emerge during late spring and summer • Larvae are flat, white, and around one inch long • Larvae have bell-shaped segments

  16. Range Map: Emerald Ash Borer

  17. EAB Quarantine Range in Tennessee

  18. Emerald Ash Borer Where to find & tree symptoms: All North American Ash trees Pattern of ash trees dying on top, while becoming ‘bushy’ on the base, is common with EAB Wilting and yellowing leaves Please note Mountain Ash isn’t a true ash and cannot be infested with EAB

  19. Emerald Ash Borer More tree symptoms: Live sprouts at base of tree are called “epicormic shoots” Larvae feed on inner bark, causing splits or cracks in the bark Characteristic D-shaped holes

  20. Emerald Ash Borer More tree symptoms: Severe damage to the wood just beneath the bark Tunneling areas are called ‘galleries’ and are a classic sign of established EAB D-shaped exit holes can be difficult to detect, so look for galleries under cracked bark Look for signs of heavy woodpecker feeding.

  21. Tips & Tricks: • Adults are small and can be difficult to detect • Instead, focus your search on tree damage patterns (like the epicormic shoots) and look for D-shaped exit holes • Vectors: firewood, wood packing materials, pallets, humans

  22. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid(HWA) • Adults produce white wool-like covering • Easiest to find by looking for these cottony masses under needles • Adults are tiny- only 1/16th inch long and hard to find

  23. Range Map: Hemlock Wooly Adelgid

  24. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Heavily infested Hemlock tree Where to find & tree symptoms: Trees appear thin and grayish-green Can attack hemlocks of any age. White woolly masses at base of a tree’s needles are the best symptom to look for Vectors: birds, nursery stock, firewood, humans

  25. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Woolly masses under needles Tips & Tricks White woolly egg mass on underside of needles “Wool” is easier to spot in low light, like shade or on overcast days Look for “wool” or nymphs on trees with graying and dying branches Harder to spot during hot months when insects are dormant Photos thanks to ForestryImages.org

  26. Gypsy Moth • Adult male and female gypsy moths • 0.75” to 1.25” long as adults • Males (left) are tan to brown • Females are off-white, larger and are flightless (though they possess long wings) • Caterpillars have blue and red spots

  27. Map: Gypsy Moth Quarantine

  28. Gypsy Moth Leaf damage from Gypsy Moth Where to find & tree symptoms: Can feed on over 300 species of trees and shrubs Favor oak, apple, alder, basswood, birch, poplar, sweet gum, willow, and hawthorn Holes in leaves and extensive defoliation of trees may occur

  29. Gypsy Moth Tips & Tricks Look for adults, caterpillars or egg masses on trees or objects left outside Leaf damage or defoliation of the tree Look for caterpillars in large groups feeding on trees Vectors: camping equipment, firewood, vehicles Photos thanks to ForestryImages.org

  30. Thousand Cankers Disease – Walnut Twig Beetle • Fungal disease that attacks walnut trees • Transported by the walnut twig beetle, which is reddish-brown and smaller than a grain of rice • Fungal infections spread and prevents growth of the tree by cutting off all sap transport • Black walnut trees die in around three years after TCD symptoms are observed

  31. Map: Thousand Cankers Disease

  32. Thousand Cankers Disease / Walnut Twig Beetle Where to find & tree symptoms: Thousand cankers disease attacks black walnut trees, walnut hybrids and Arizona walnut English walnut does not appear very susceptible Best symptom to look for is yellowing leaves high on the tree Upper branches will then start to die off

  33. Thousand Cankers Disease / Walnut Twig Beetle Tips & Tricks Foliage yellows, progresses to brown and wilted, and then the whole branch dies Look for dead or sickly branches New leafy branches may sprout on the base of the trunk Numerous tiny beetle holes on dead and dying branches Photos thanks to ForestryImages.org

  34. How Did They Get Here? • Tree-killing insects and diseases are frequently transported to new areas via: • Nursery plants • Pallets, crates, and other solid wood packaging • Firewood movement • Humans • Pests hitchhike inside or on the surface of the above materials, accidentally introducing them to new places and infesting new trees. • Because they’re not native pests, trees usually have no defense against them.

  35. Take Action if you find these • Invasive Pests

  36. Take Action: Spotting & Reporting Pests When you identify a worrisome pest or tree damage: Write down the location and pest/damage information take a few pictures of what you see. Get More Information or Report online at Protect TN Forests: http://protecttnforests.org Call State Plant Health Director: (615) 837-5520

  37. Asian longhorned beetle Emerald ash borer Hemlock woolly adelgid Thousand cankers disease Gypsy moth Vectors Any questions? Help keep Tennessee trees healthy.