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Development of Periodic Table. J.A.R. Newlands (1864). Law of Octaves. Arranged the 62 known elements into groups of seven according to increasing atomic mass. He proposed that an eighth element would then repeat the properties of the first element in the previous group.

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development of periodic table
Development of Periodic Table

J.A.R. Newlands (1864)

Law of Octaves

Arranged the 62 known elements into groups of seven

according to increasing atomic mass.

He proposed that an eighth element would then repeat the

properties of the first element in the previous group.

D. Mendeleev (1871)

Original Periodic Table

Observed properties and organized elementsby atomic mass.

Henry Mosley (1914)

Revised Periodic Table

Reorganized table by atomic number, based on observations with atomic spectra

dmitri mendeleev 1871
Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
  • Russian
  • Invented “Periodic Table”
  • Organized all known elements by properties and by atomic mass
  • Predicted existence of several unknown elements

Dmitri Mendeleev

elements properties are predicted
Elements Properties are Predicted

O’Connor Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 119,

modern periodic table
Modern Periodic Table
  • Henry G.J. Moseley
  • Determined the atomic numbers of elements from their X-ray spectra (1914)
  • Arranged elements by increasing atomic number
  • Killed in WW I at age 28

(Battle of Gallipoli in Turkey)

1887 - 1915

discovering the periodic table

1894-1918

Ancient Times

H

He

Midd. -1700

1923-1961

1965-

1735-1843

1843-1886

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Discovering the Periodic Table

Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989

valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • - Electrons in outer most energy level (“shell”)
  • Electrons which are most important in bonding
  • Elements with eight valance electrons are the most stable (i.e. inert gases in group 18)
  • Valance electrons useful for writing short-hand electron configuration (i.e. Na = [Ne]3s1)
periodic patterns

1st column of s-block

1st Period

s-block

Periodic Patterns
  • Example - Hydrogen

1s1

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

periodic patterns1

32

Ge

72.61

Periodic Patterns
  • Example -Germanium

[Ar]

4s2

3d10

4p2

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

the octet rule and common ions

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10+

-

-

-

-

8+

9+

11+

12+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+2e-

+1e-

-1e-

-2e-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8+

9+

11+

12+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

The Octet Rule and Common Ions

Oxygen atom

O

1s22s22p4

Fluorine atom

F

1s22s22p5

Sodium atom

Na

1s22s22p63s1

Magnesium atom

Mg

1s22s22p63s2

Neon atom

Ne

1s22s22p6

Oxygen ion

O2-

1s22s22p6

Fluorine ion

F1-

1s22s22p6

Sodium ion

Na1+

1s22s22p6

Magnesium ion

Mg2+

1s22s22p6

orbitals being filled
Orbitals Being Filled

1

18

Groups or Families

2

1s

1

13 14 15 16 17

1s

2s

2

2p

3s

3p

3

4p

3d

Periods

4s

4

4d

5p

5s

5

La

5d

6p

6

6s

Ac

6d

7

7s

4f

Lanthanide series

5f

Actinide series

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 345

stability
Stability
  • Full energy level
  • Full sublevel (s, p, d, f)
  • Half-full sublevel

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

stability1
Stability
  • Ion Formation
    • Atoms gain or lose electrons to become more stable.
    • Isoelectronic with the Noble Gases.

3+

1+

NA

2+

1-

0

3-

2-

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

the periodic table

Uun

110

Uuu

111

Uub

112

Uuq

113

Uuh

116

Uuo

118

The Periodic Table

Noble

gases

Alkaline

earth metals

Halogens

1

18

H

1

He

2

2

13

14

15

16

17

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

Transition metals

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

Alkali metals

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

Cs

55

Ba

56

*

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

Fr

87

Ra

88

Y

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

* Lanthanides

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

Y Actinides

metals nonmetals metalloids
Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids

1

Nonmetals

2

3

4

Metals

5

6

7

Metalloids

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 349

metallic properties
Metallic Properties

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases

properties of metals nonmetals and metalloids
Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

METALS

malleable, lustrous, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, high densities and melting points, can form alloys (2 or more metals), react with acids

NONMETALS

gases or brittle solids at room temperature, poor

conductors of heat and electricity (insulators), low densities, low melting points

METALLOIDS

(Semi-metals)

dull, brittle, semi-conductors (used in computer chips), mostly solids at room temperature, properties of both metals and nonmetals

reactivity
Reactivity

GROUP 1 (ALKALI METALS) and 2 (ALKALINE-EARTH)

Both groups very reactive; most stable by losing 1-2 electrons. Group 1 often stored in oil (most reactive group)

GROUP 17 HALOGENS

Most reactive of non-metals; most stable by gaining one electron

GROUP 18 NOBLE GASES

Low chemical reactivity; very stable; octet valence electrons

densities of elements
Densities of Elements

H

0.071

He

0.126

1

1

Li

0.53

Be

1.8

B

2.5

C

2.26

N

0.81

O

1.14

F

1.11

Ne

1.204

2

2

Na

0.97

Mg

1.74

Al

2.70

Si

2.4

P

1.82w

S

2.07

Cl

1.557

Ar

1.402

3

3

K

0.86

Ca

1.55

Sc

(2.5)

Ti

4.5

V

5.96

Cr

7.1

Mn

7.4

Fe

7.86

Co

8.9

Ni

8.90

Cu

8.92

Zn

7.14

Ga

5.91

Ge

5.36

As

5,7

Se

4.7

Br

3.119

Kr

2.6

4

4

Rb

1.53

Sr

2.6

Y

5.51

Zr

6.4

Nb

8.4

Mo

10.2

Tc

11.5

Ru

12.5

Rh

12.5

Pd

12.0

Ag

10.5

Cd

8.6

In

7.3

Sn

7.3

Sb

6.7

Te

6.1

I

4.93

Xe

3.06

5

5

Cs

1.90

Ba

3.5

La

6.7

Hf

13.1

Ta

16.6

W

19.3

Re

21.4

Os

22.48

Ir

22.4

Pt

21.45

Au

19.3

Hg

13.55

Tl

11.85

Pb

11.34

Bi

9.8

Po

9.4

At

---

Rn

4.4

6

6

8.0 – 11.9 g/cm3

12.0 – 17.9 g/cm3

> 18.0 g/cm3

Mg

1.74

Symbol

Density in g/cm3C, for gases, in g/L

W

atomic radius

= 1 Angstrom

0.88 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.64

1.52 1.11

1.86 1.60

1.43 1.17 1.10 1.04 0.99

2.31 1.97

1.22 1.22 1.21 1.17 1.14

1.62 1.40 1.41 1.37 1.33

2.44 2.15

2.62 2.17

1.71 1.75 1.46

Atomic Radius

1 2 13 14 15 16 17

Li

Be

C

N

O

B

F

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

K

Ca

Ge

As

Se

Br

Ga

Rb

Sr

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Cs

Ba

Pb

Tl

Bi

slide21
Atomic radius increases with energy levels, since orbital size and shielding increase. Radius decreases with increased nuclear charge.
  • Radius Decreases RIGHT and Increases DOWN
atomic radii

1 2 13 15 16 17

N3-

Li1+

Be2+

Li

O2-

F1-

= 1 Angstrom

Be

C

N

O

B

F

0.88 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.64

1.71 1.40 1.36

1.52 1.11

0.60 0.31

Na

Na1+

Mg2+

S2-

Cl1-

Al3+

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

0.95 0.65

1.86 1.60

0.50 1.84 1.81

1.43 1.17 1.10 1.04 0.99

K

Ca

Se2-

Br1-

Ge

As

Se

Br

Ga

Ga3+

K1+

Ca2+

2.31 1.97

1.33 0.99

1.22 1.22 1.21 1.17 1.14

0.62 1.98 1.85

Rb

Sr

Te2-

I1-

In

In3+

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Rb1+

Sr2+

1.62 1.40 1.41 1.37 1.33

0.81 2.21 2.16

2.44 2.15

1.48 1.13

Cs

Ba

Pb

Tl

Tl3+

Cs1+

Bi

Ba2+

2.62 2.17

1.69 1.35

0.95

1.71 1.75 1.46

= 1 Angstrom

Atomic Radii

Ionic Radii

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

trends in atomic and ionic size

Group 13

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Li

Li+

F-

F

64

152

60

136

Na

Na+

Al

Cl-

Cl

50

95

143

99

186

181

K

K+

Br-

Br

114

133

195

227

Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size

Metals

Nonmetals

Group 1

Group 17

Al3+

Cations are smaller than parent atoms

Anions are larger than parent atoms

slide24

2p

2s

1s

He

Ne

n

F

N

  • Ne has a lower IE than He
  • Both are full energy levels,
  • Ne has more shielding
  • Greater distance

H

O

C

First Ionization energy

Be

B

Li

Atomic number

slide25

He

Ne

F

N

H

O

C

Be

3s

B

2p

Li

2s

Na

1s

n

  • Na has a lower IE than Li
  • Both are s1
  • Na has more shielding
  • Greater distance

First Ionization energy

Atomic number

atomic radius1
Atomic Radius

K

Na

Li

Ar

Ne

melting points
Melting Points

H

-259.2

He

-269.7

Mg

650

1

1

Symbol

Melting point oC

Li

180.5

Be

1283

B

2027

C

4100

N

-210.1

O

-218.8

F

-219.6

Ne

-248.6

2

2

> 3000 oC

2000 - 3000 oC

Na

98

Mg

650

Al

660

Si

1423

P

44.2

S

119

Cl

-101

Ar

-189.6

3

3

K

63.2

Ca

850

Sc

1423

Ti

1677

V

1917

Cr

1900

Mn

1244

Fe

1539

Co

1495

Ni

1455

Cu

1083

Zn

420

Ga

29.78

Ge

960

As

817

Se

217.4

Br

-7.2

Kr

-157.2

4

4

Rb

38.8

Sr

770

Y

1500

Zr

1852

Nb

2487

Mo

2610

Tc

2127

Ru

2427

Rh

1966

Pd

1550

Ag

961

Cd

321

In

156.2

Sn

231.9

Sb

630.5

Te

450

I

113.6

Xe

-111.9

5

5

Cs

28.6

Ba

710

La

920

Hf

2222

Ta

2997

W

3380

Re

3180

Os

2727

Ir

2454

Pt

1769

Au

1063

Hg

-38.9

Tl

303.6

Pb

327.4

Bi

271.3

Po

254

At

Rn

-71

6

6

Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry , 1999, page 1999

melting boiling points
Melting/Boiling Points

Generally highest in the middle of d and p orbitals

nuclear fusion
Nuclear Fusion

Sun

+

+

+

Energy (gamma ray)

Two beta

particles

(electrons)

Four

hydrogen

nuclei

(protons)

One

helium

nucleus

conservation of mass
Conservation of Mass

…mass is converted into energy

Hydrogen (H2) H = 1.008 amu

Helium (He) He = 4.004 amu

FUSION

2 H2 1 He + ENERGY

1.008 amu

x 4

4.0032 amu = 4.004 amu + 0.028 amu

This relationship was discovered by Albert Einstein

E = mc2

Energy= (mass) (speed of light)2

nuclear fusion1
Nuclear Fusion

Sun

+

+

+

Energy (gamma ray)

Helium

Beryllium

Helium

synthetic elements
Synthetic Elements
  • Transuranium Elements
    • elements with atomic #s above 92
    • synthetically produced in nuclear reactors and accelerators
    • most decay very rapidly

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem