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Atom video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqNSQ3OQMGI&feature=share. Basic Principle: electrons occupy lowest energy levels available. Aufbau Principle -- “Bottom Up Rule”. Stern-Gerlach Experiment. . . How could an orbital hold two electrons without electrostatic repulsion?.

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Atom video l.jpg

Atom video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqNSQ3OQMGI&feature=share


Slide2 l.jpg

Basic Principle:

electrons occupy lowest energy levels available



Stern gerlach experiment l.jpg
Stern-Gerlach Experiment

How could an orbital hold two electrons

without electrostatic repulsion?

Electron spin


Spdf notation l.jpg

2 ways to write electron configurations

spdf Notation

spdf NOTATION

for H, atomic number = 1

1

no. of

electrons

s

1

sublevel

value of energy level

Orbital Box Notation

ORBITAL BOX NOTATION

for He, atomic number = 2

Arrows show electron spin

(+½ or -½)

2



1s

1s


Pauli exclusion principle l.jpg

Example:

Determine the electron configuration and orbital notation for the ground state neon atom.

Pauli exclusion principle

An orbital can contain a maximum of 2 electrons,

and they must have the opposite “spin.”


Write the ground state configuration and the orbital diagram for oxygen in its ground state l.jpg
Write the ground state configuration and the orbital diagram for oxygen in its ground state

Hund’s Rule -


Outer electron configuration for the elements l.jpg
Outer electron configuration for the elements for oxygen in its ground state


Using the periodic table to know configurations l.jpg
Using the periodic table to know configurations for oxygen in its ground state

Period

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe


Slide11 l.jpg

Valence e for oxygen in its ground state’s for “main group” elements


Slide12 l.jpg

Basic Principle: for oxygen in its ground state

electrons occupy lowest energy levels available

Rules for Filling Orbitals

Bottom-up

(Aufbau’s principle)

Fill orbitals singly before doubling up

(Hund’s Rule)

Paired electrons have opposite spin

(Pauli exclusion principle)


Slide13 l.jpg

Identify examples of the following principles: for oxygen in its ground state

1) Aufbau 2) Hund’s rule 3) Pauli exclusion


Shorthand notation practice l.jpg
Shorthand notation practice for oxygen in its ground state

Examples

●Aluminum: 1s22s22p63s23p1[Ne]3s23p1

● Calcium: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2

[Ar]4s2

● Nickel: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8

[Ar]4s23d8 {or [Ar]3d84s2}

● Iodine: [Kr]5s24d105p5 {or [Kr]4d105s25p5}

● Astatine (At): [Xe]6s24f145d106p5

{or [Xe]4f145d106s26p5}

[Noble Gas Core] + higher energy electrons


Electron configuration for as l.jpg
Electron configuration for As for oxygen in its ground state


Slide16 l.jpg

Note: for oxygen in its ground state Not written according to Aufbau, but grouping according to n


Orbital energy ladder l.jpg
Orbital energy ladder for oxygen in its ground state

f

d

n = 4

p

d

s

p

n = 3

s

p

n = 2

s

n = 1

Energy

s


Slide18 l.jpg

Phosphorus for oxygen in its ground state

Symbol:P

Atomic Number:15

Full Configuration:1s22s22p63s23p3

Valence Configuration:3s23p3

Shorthand Configuration:[Ne]3s23p3













Box Notation













2s

1s

2p

3s

3p


Slide19 l.jpg
Quantum numbers and orbital energies for oxygen in its ground stateEach electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers to define it{ n, l, ml, ms }

  • n = principal quantum number

    • electron’s energy depends principally on this

  • l = azimuthal quantum number

    • for orbitals of same n, l distinguishes different shapes (angular momentum)

  • ml = magnetic quantum number

    • for orbitals of same n & l, ml distinguishes different orientations in space

  • ms = spin quantum number

    • for orbitals of same n,l & ml, ms identifies the two possible spin orientations


Slide20 l.jpg

Energy level for oxygen in its ground stateSublevel# of orbitals/sublevel

n = 1 1s (l = 0) 1 (ml has one value)

n = 22s (l = 0) 1 (ml has one value)

2p (l = 1) 3 (ml has three values)

n = 33s (l = 0) 1 (ml has one value) 3p (l = 1) 3 (ml has three values) 3d (l = 2) 5 (ml has five values)

Quantum numbers and orbital energies Each atom’s electron has a unique set of quantum numbers to define it{ n, l, ml, ms }

n = principal

quantum

number

(energy)

l = azimuthal

quantum

number

(shape)

ml = magnetic

quantum

number

(orientation)


Concept each electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers to define it n l m l m s l.jpg
Concept: for oxygen in its ground stateEach electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers to define it{ n, l, ml, ms }

21


Quantum numbers unique set for each e l.jpg
Quantum numbers: unique set for each for oxygen in its ground statee-

  • s orbitals p orbitals d orbitals f orbitals

  • l = 0 l = 1l = 2l = 3

  • ml = 0ml = -1, 0, 1ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 ml=-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3

  • An s subshellA p subshellA d subshell An f subshell

  • One s orbitalThree p orbitalsFive d orbitals Seven f orbitals

  • For n=1 l=0 an s subshell (with 1 orbital)

  • For n=2 l=0,1 an s subshell and a p subshell (with 3 orbitals)

  • For n=3 l=0,1,2 an s subshell, a p subshell, a d subshell (with 5 orbitals)

  • For n=4 l=0,1,2,3 an s subshell, a p subshell, a d subshell, an f subshell (with 7 orbitals)


Electronic configuration of br l.jpg
Electronic configuration of Br for oxygen in its ground state

1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d10 4s24p5

[Ar]3d104s24p5

[Ar] = “noble gas core”

[Ar]3d10 = “pseudo noble gas core”

(electrons that tend not to react)

Atom’s reactivity is determined by valence electrons

valence e’s in Br:4s24p5

highest n electrons


Slide24 l.jpg

Valence e for oxygen in its ground state- shells for

transition metalsv.main group elements

d orbitals not included

in valence shell

(pseudo noble gas cores)

d orbitals sometimes

included in valence shell


Rule of thumb for valence electrons l.jpg
Rule-of-thumb for valence electrons for oxygen in its ground state

Examples

●Sulfur: 1s22s22p63s23p4 or [Ne]3s23p4

valence electrons:3s23p4

● Strontium: [Kr]5s2

valence electrons:5s2

● Gallium: [Ar]4s23d104p1

valence electrons:4s24p1

● Vanadium: [Ar]4s23d3

valence electrons:4s2or3d34s2

Identify all electrons at the highest principal quantum number (n)

Use on exams,

but recognize

limitations

Use Table 8.9

for online HW


Selenium s valence electrons l.jpg
Selenium’s valence electrons for oxygen in its ground state

Written for increasing energy:

Pseudo noble gas core includes:

noble gas electron core

d electrons (not very reactive)


Core and valence electrons in germanium l.jpg
Core and valence electrons in Germanium for oxygen in its ground state

Written for increasing energy:

Pseudo noble gas core includes:

noble gas core

d electrons


D block some exceptions to the aufbau principle l.jpg
d for oxygen in its ground state-block: some exceptions to the Aufbau principle

Fig. 8.9: Use this table for online homework


Electron spin magnetism l.jpg
Electron spin & magnetism for oxygen in its ground state

For the ground state oxygen atom:

spdf configuration:

orbital box notation:

Paramagnetic: atoms with unpaired electrons that are weakly attracted to a magnet.

Diamagnetic: atoms with paired electrons that are not attracted to a magnet.


Apparatus for measuring magnetic properties l.jpg
Apparatus for measuring magnetic properties for oxygen in its ground state