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BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance. Introduction. Ecologists usually define a population as… Characterized by the number of individuals and their density . Additional characteristics of a population include… .

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introduction
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceIntroduction
  • Ecologists usually define a populationas…
    • Characterized by the number of individuals and their density.
      • Additional characteristics of a population include…
distribution limits
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistribution Limits
  • _____________________ limits geographic distribution of a species.
    • Organisms can only compensate so much for environmental variation.
niches
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceNiches
  • _______: Summarizes environmental factors that influence growth, survival, and reproduction of a species.
    • Grinnell’s definition focused on the effects of the physical environment
    • Elton’s definition included biotic and abiotic factors
niches1
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceNiches
  • Hutchinson defined niche as:
      • n equates the number of environmental factors important to survival and reproduction of a species.
    • ___________________- hypervolume
    • ___________________ includes interactions such as competition that may restrict environments where a species may live.
tiger beetle of cold climates
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceTiger Beetle of Cold Climates
  • Tiger Beetle (Cicindelalongilabris) lives at higher latitudes and elevations than most other species in NA.
    • Schultz et. al. found metabolic rates of C. longilabris are higher and preferred temperatures ____________ than most other species.
      • Supports generalization that the physical environment limits species distributions.
distributions of plants along a moisture temperature gradient
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistributions of Plants Along a Moisture-Temperature Gradient
  • Encelia species distributions correspond to variations in temperature and precipitation.
distributions of barnacles along an intertidal exposure gradient
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistributions of Barnacles Along an Intertidal Exposure Gradient
  • Organisms living in an intertidal zone have evolved to different degrees of resistance to…
    • Barnacles show …
      • Connell found Chthamalusstellatus restricted to upper levels while Balanusbalanoides is limited to middle and lower levels.
distributions of barnacles along an intertidal gradient1
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistributions of Barnacles Along an Intertidal Gradient
  • Balanus appears to be more vulnerable to _____________, excluding it from the upper intertidal zone.
  • Chthamalusadults appear to be excluded from lower areas by _____________ with Balanus.
distribution of individuals on small scales
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistribution of Individuals on Small Scales
  • _____________: Equal chance of being anywhere.
  • _____________: Uniformly spaced.
  • _____________: Unequal chance of being anywhere.
what pattern why
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceWhat pattern? Why?

http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2004/11/NestingColonyLG.jpg

what pattern why1
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceWhat pattern? Why?

http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01216/gnu_1216499c.jpg

slide16
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Species of aggressive stingless bees that forage over clumped resources… how would you predict they be distributed? How about passive species foraging on regularly spread resources?

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2359/2459405670_f8082401c0.jpg

distribution of tropical bee colonies
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistribution of Tropical Bee Colonies
  • As predicted, four species with regular distributions were highly aggressive.
    • Fifth was non-aggressive and ___________ distributed.
    • Prospective nest sites marked with ____________.
distributions of desert shrubs
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceDistributions of Desert Shrubs
  • Traditional theory suggests desert shrubs are regularly spaced due to competition but….
organism size and population density
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceOrganism Size and Population Density

How does aquatic invertebrate density cmopare to that of other animals of comparable size?

Density decreases as body size…

How does mammal density compare to bird density?

plant size and population density
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundancePlant Size and Population Density
  • Plant population density ___________ with ____________ plant size.
    • Underlying details are very different.
commonness and rarity
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceCommonness and Rarity
  • Rabinowitz devised commonness classification based on (3) factors:
  • Populations that are least threatened by extinction, have extensive geographic ranges, broad habitat tolerances, and some large local populations.
    • All seven other combinations create some kind of rarity.
rarity
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceRarity
  • Rarity I
      • Peregrine Falcon
  • Rarity II
      • Passenger Pigeon

http://falconrytoday.net/news/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Peregrine-Falcon0014.jpg

http://www.saroffillustration.com/portfolio/page/ns4_pigeon.jpg

rarity1
BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & AbundanceRarity
  • Rarity III
      • California Condor

http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/hunting/condor/images/condor119.jpg

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