EU institutions. TUE Article 13. The Union’s institutions shall be : the European Parliament the European Council the Council the European Commission the Court of Justice of the European Union the European Central Bank the Court of Auditors.
Intergovernmentallegitimacy / represent national interests
Major distinction between the 2 councils :
= The legislator (unique, to beginwith)
+ May request the Commission to submit proposals, and may delegate powers to the Commission to pass legislation in a particular field
Original meaning = each state had a number of votes and a majority of votes wasrequired
SinceLisbon (but delayed to 2014): majority of States + majority of the population (65%)
= « double hat » (more integrated and coordinatedpolicy) / shouldbethe face of the Unionat the international level
The European Council provides the necessaryimpetus for the development of the Union and definesgeneralpolitical guidelines
= « defines the directions and priorities »
-> Decides of Intergovermentalconferences (IGC = summits) to amendtreaties = affirms the consequentialtreaty changes
-> Launchesideas of policystrategies
-> Intervenes in external relations (new accessions)
Adoptsconcludingresolutionsbut no law
NO LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS
(resolutions have to go through the legislativeprocess)
-> 27 members / one per MS
-> Lisbonreform (in force in 2014): 18 commissionersonly (rotation) to ensure administrative efficiency (v. representation of member states)
= « motor of the integration »
= « the watchdog », ensuresthat the treaty and otheracts are properlyapplied
Every 5 years, in Member states (lowturnout and declining, 43% in 2009)
MEPs for each country (in proportion to its population)
Total: 736 membersrepresenting 500 millions citizens
Lisbon Treaty: no country can have fewer than 6 or more than 96 MEPs.
MEPs are grouped bypolitical affiliation, not by nationality.
Adoption with the Council of the European Union.
Parliament monitors the expenditure (through a committee)