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Protestant Reformation. Origins of the Reformation. Began in Germany because it lacked a strong central government Germany formed core of Holy Roman Empire, but empire included over 300 semi-independent states Some wanted independence from the Holy Roman Empire

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origins of the reformation
Origins of the Reformation
  • Began in Germany because it lacked a strong central government
  • Germany formed core of Holy Roman Empire, but empire included over 300 semi-independent states
  • Some wanted independence from the Holy Roman Empire
  • Weak emperor could not control independent ideas about religion within the German states
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • German monk, started Reformation
  • Came to believe in Justification ByFaith: a person could be made just, or good, simply by faith in God's mercy and love
  • How did it start…?
selling indulgences
Selling Indulgences
  • Pope Leo X sold church positions and indulgences to raise money for the church
  • Indulgences- certificates issued by the Church that were said to reduce or evencancel punishment for a person's sin
People purchased indulgences, believing it insured them a spot in heaven
  • John Tetzel, Church's agent for selling indulgences in N.Germany, promised peasants that indulgences would relieve them of guilt for future sins….

Could also buy indulgences for salvation of their dead relatives - "Once you hear the money's ring, the soul from purgatory is free to spring."

  • Purgatory- place in the afterlife where people are made fit for heaven
luther s protest
October 31, 1517: nailed on door of Wittenberg Church the 95 Theses

Criticized sale of indulgences

Printed copies of Theses spread

Luther’s Protest
two main teachings of luther
justification by faith

only God’s grace through Christ saves; no amount of good works could do it...

priesthood of all believers

all Christians are equal before God

these ideas challenged basic church doctrine…that is, they were heresy


Two Main Teachings of Luther


  • 1521: Pope Excommunicated Luther
  • Diet of Worms (Germany) - tried to get Luther to take back (recant) criticisms
  • Luther refused; condemned as a heretic
  • Went into hiding; translated Bible into German
lutheranism vs catholicism
Emphasized salvation by faith alone

Bible only source of religious truth

Church = communityof believers

Stressed faith and good works in salvation

Church authority & teachings important spiritual guide

Church = clerical hierarchy

Lutheranism vs. Catholicism
lutheranism vs catholicism1
All occupations were vocations in which people could serve God

Ministers - only administer baptism &communion

Priesthood only calling in which people could serve God

Priests - administer 7 sacraments

Lutheranism vs. Catholicism
huldrych zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
  • Swiss priest wanted to break completely with Catholic tradition
  • 1525 established aTHEOCRACY(church-run state) in Zurich
  • 1531 died in battle between Catholics & Protestants
john calvin
John Calvin
  • argued that God determines fate of every person before born- PREDESTINATION
  • Those predestined (chosen beforehand) were called “the elect”
  • Calvin turned Geneva into model religious community (theocracy)

Consistory (Church council) required citizens to attend services; inspected homes - Geneva earned title "City of God."

john knox
John Knox
  • Leader of the Reformation in Scotland
  • Founds Presbyterianism based on Calvin’s teachings
  • Presbytery - group of elected decision makers of the church
  • “Priesthood of all believers” --equality
  • Only baptizedadultmembers
  • Denied authority of local governments to direct their lives - said Christ was their only authority (separation of church and state)
  • 1534 - radical Anabaptists seizedpower in German city of Munster (burned books, took property) Lutherans & Catholics united to crush them

Sketch of the 1535 execution of leaders of the sect in Münster, and photo of the church where their corpses were displayed. The cages still remain.

henry viii
Henry VIII
  • Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon for not producing a male heir to the throne
  • Catholic Church forbade divorce - refused to dissolve Henry’s marriage
Henry got mad, withdrew England from Catholic Church and created a new church
  • Act of Supremacy - Parliament created Church of England(Anglican Church) with king as its head
  • important Englishmen were required to swear oath accepting king as its head...
Sir Thomas More -
  • King Henry’s former chancellor who refused to take the oath….
  • As humanist believed in religious tolerance - but was loyal to the Catholic Church
  • Beheaded for treason
  • (author of Utopia!)
changes in the church
Changes in the Church
  • Henry was NOT a protestant
  • The English church was separated from the Roman Catholic Church
  • Few other changes were made in the church
henry s wives children
Henry’s wives & Children







  • Catherine of Aragon Mary
  • Anne Boleyn Elizabeth
  • Jane Seymour Edward
  • Anne of Cleves
  • Catherine Howard
  • Catherine Parr
  • Son Edward inherited throne 1st
edward vi under a regent
Edward VI – under a regent
  • The boy king, Edward, was under a regent because of his minority
  • The 1st regent – his uncle – introduced Protestant reforms into the church:
  • English liturgy – Anglican Prayer Book
  • Salvation by faith
  • Images, ornamentation & much ritual removed
  • When sickly Edward died at 16 some protestant nobles attempted to keep his sister Mary from inheriting the throne because she was Catholic
lady jane grey
{ Lady Jane Grey}
  • Edward’s 15 year old cousin Lady Jane was claimed Queen by some dominant nobles
  • Duke of Northumberland had arranged a marriage between her and his son, Guilford Dudley
  • But quickly people rallied to the support of the rightful heir, Mary Tudor
  • Troops abandoned Jane for Mary
  • Guilford & Jane were executed for treason
  • She had been queen 9 days
mary i
Mary I
  • Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon
  • Married to Catholic Philip II of Spain
  • Sought to revive Catholicism
  • Protestants revolted
  • Persecution of Protestants led to her being known as:
  • Bloody Mary