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Microbial Hazards

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  1. Microbial Hazards

  2. Microbial Hazards Microorganisms are everywhere -- they can be: • Pathogens – cause disease • Spoilers – cause the quality of food to deteriorate • Beneficial – used for food production and present in and on the body Microbial Hazards

  3. Types of Foodborne Illness Infection • eating food contaminated with pathogens Intoxication • eating food contaminated with the toxins (poisons) formed by bacteria • eating food contaminated with other biological or chemical toxins (poisons) Toxin-mediated infection • eating food contaminated with pathogens that grow in the body and form toxins (poisons) Microbial Hazards

  4. Three Microbial Hazards Three microorganisms cause most foodborne illness: • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites Microorganisms are: • naturally present or • get into the food through poor handling practices. Microbial Hazards

  5. Common Symptoms Common symptoms of foodborne illness are: • diarrhea • vomiting • fever • sore throat with fever • jaundice Microbial Hazards

  6. Bacteria Basics • Invisible to the naked eye. • Pathogenic bacteria only grow in potentially hazardous food, which are also called TCS food. • Some produce spores. • Some produce toxins. • Not necessarily destroyed by freezing or cooking. • Can cause infection, intoxication, or toxin-mediated infection. Microbial Hazards

  7. Conditions for Bacterial Growth Potentially hazardous food • low acid (pH >4.6) • moist • protein Time • 4 hours or longer in the temperature danger zone Temperature • between 41oF and 135oF Microbial Hazards

  8. Activity The Numbers Game

  9. Oxygen • Some pathogenic bacteria require oxygen; others do not. • Clostridium botulinum grows in the absence of oxygen. • Absence of oxygen may occur in: • Vacuum packaged food • Center of thick cooked foods, such as stew • Garlic in oil that is not commercially processed • Foil wrapped potatoes • Cooked rice Microbial Hazards

  10. Controlling Bacteria Good personal hygiene • Only allow healthy workers to handle food. • Have all workers wash their hands properly and frequently. Prevent cross-contamination • Store foods properly. • Only use cleaned and sanitized utensils and surfaces for food preparation. Time-temperature control • Cook foods to proper temperatures. • Hold foods at proper temperatures. Microbial Hazards

  11. Bacillus cereus Campylobacter Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens E. coli Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Vibrio Yersinia Common Foodborne Bacteria Microbial Hazards

  12. Virus Basics • Do not grow in food; use food as a vehicle to get from one person to another. • Can contaminate any food. • Cause most foodborne illnesses in the U.S. • Invisible to the naked eye • Cause foodborne infection not foodborne intoxication. Microbial Hazards

  13. Controlling Viruses • Prevent getting viruses into food because they might not be destroyed by cooking. • Prevent introduction by: • Only allowing healthy workers to handle food. • Having all workers frequently and properly wash their hands. • Buying all food from an approved and safe source. Microbial Hazards

  14. Common Foodborne Viruses Hepatitis A Norovirus Microbial Hazards

  15. Parasite Basics • Most are not visible to the naked eye. • Do not grow in food. • Found naturally in many animals, such as: • pigs, • cats, • rodents, and • fish. • Cause foodborne infection and not foodborne intoxication. Microbial Hazards

  16. Controlling Parasites in Food • Get food from an approved and safe source. • Cook foods to proper temperatures. • Properly freeze seafood to be served raw. • Wash hands frequently and properly. • Use safe water sources for food preparation and cleaning. Microbial Hazards

  17. Common Foodborne Parasites • Anisakis simplex • Cryptosporidium parvum • Cyclospora cayetanensis • Giardia duodenalis • Toxoplasma gondii • Trichinella spiralis Microbial Hazards

  18. Mold Basics • Common cause of food spoilage. • Some form toxins that can cause illness. • Grow in a wide range of foods – high acid, low moisture. • Freezing does not destroy. • Requires air to grow. Microbial Hazards

  19. Yeast Basics • Cause food spoilage and not foodborne illness. • Grow in a wide range of foods – high acid, low moisture. • Produce a smell, bubbling, or a taste of alcohol when food spoils. • Easily destroyed by proper processing. Microbial Hazards

  20. Activity Who Am I?

  21. Beef that is served rare Whole raw chicken that has been on the countertop for six hours Who Am I? Microbial Hazards

  22. Food worker who touches here face before serving food in a cafeteria Who Am I? Microbial Hazards

  23. Who Am I? Uncooked pork Raw fish Microbial Hazards

  24. Who Am I? Grapes Bread that has been stored in a moist environment Microbial Hazards

  25. Who Am I? Commercially processed apple juice Jam Microbial Hazards