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Lecture 2. Introduction to JDBC. Introducing JDBC. According to Sun, JDBC is not an acronym, but is commonly misinterpreted to mean J ava D ata B ase C onnectivity JDBC: is an API that provides “universal data access for the Java2 platform” Supports ANSI SQL 92.

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lecture 2

Lecture 2

Introduction to JDBC

introducing jdbc
Introducing JDBC
  • According to Sun, JDBC is not an acronym, but is commonly misinterpreted to mean Java DataBase Connectivity
  • JDBC: is an API that provides “universal data access for the Java2 platform”
  • Supports ANSI SQL 92
the standard query language sql
The Standard Query Language (SQL)
  • Composed of two categories:
    • Data Definition Language (DDL)
      • create database
      • create table
      • drop database
    • Data Manipulation Language (DML)
      • used to manipulate the data
        • select
        • delete
        • update
data definition language
Data Definition Language
  • CREATE DATABASE - allows you to create a database
  • CREATE TABLE - allows you to create a table definition in a database
  • DROP TABLE - removes a table from a database
  • ALTER TABLE - modifies the definition of a table in a database
data manipulation language
Data Manipulation Language
  • SELECT - query the database
    • select * from customer where id > 1001
  • INSERT - adds new rows to a table.
    • Insert into customer values (1009, ‘John Doe’)
  • DELETE - removes a specified row
    • delete from customer where amount = 100
  • UPDATE - modifies an existing row
    • update customers set amount = 10 where id > 1003
what does jdbc do
What Does JDBC Do?
  • Allows you to connect to a known data source using common OO semantics using Java
  • Allows you to issue standard SQL commands on that data source
  • Provides you with classes to facilitate access to and manipulation of:
    • returned data and,
    • generated exceptions
a standard jdbc application
A standard JDBC application

// Load the JDBC driver

Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver").newInstance();

// Connect to the database

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection

(connect-string,user, pass);

// Create a statement

Statement stmt = conn.createStatement ();

// Execute the statement: select data from the emp table

boolean results = stmt.execute("select * from emp");

ResultSet rset = null;

if (results) rset = stmt.getResultSet();

// Process results: walk through the result set

while (rset.next ()) {

System.out.println (rset.getString (1) + rset.getString(2));

….

}

jdbc driver types
JDBC Driver Types
  • Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC Bridge Technology)
  • Type 2 (JNI drivers for native connection libraries)
  • Type 3 (Socket-level Middleware Translator)
  • Type 4 (Pure Java-DBMS driver)
jdbc driver types1
JDBC Driver Types

Type 1 driver

JDBC ODBC Driver

ODBC Driver

Type 2 driver

Oracle listener

Oracle

DBMS

Oracle call interface

JDBC OCI Driver

Type 4 driver

JDBC Thin driver

Client side

Server side

type 1 drivers jdbc odbc bridges
Type 1 Drivers: JDBC-ODBC Bridges
  • JDBC driver translates call into ODBC and redirects ODBC call to an ODBC driver on the DBMS
  • ODBC binary code must exist on every client
  • Translation layer compromises execution speed to small degree
type 2 drivers native api java driver
Type 2 Drivers: Native-API + Java Driver
  • Java driver makes JNI calls on the client API (usually written in C or C++)
    • eg: Sybase dblib or ctlib
    • eg: Oracle Call Interface libs (OCI)
  • Requires client-side code to be installed
  • Often the fastest solution available
  • Native drivers are usually delivered by DBMS vendor
  • Bug in driver can crash JVMs
type 3 drivers jdbc middleware pure java driver
Type 3 Drivers:JDBC-Middleware Pure Java Driver
  • JDBC driver translates JDBC calls into a DBMS-independent protocol
  • Then, communicates over a socket with a middleware server that translates Java code into native API DBMS calls
  • No client code need be installed
  • Single driver provides access to multiple DBMSs, eg. WebLogic, Tengah drivers
  • Type 3 drivers auto-download for applets.
  • Communication is indirect via a middleware server
type 4 drivers pure java drivers
Type 4 Drivers:Pure Java Drivers
  • Java drivers talk directly to the DBMS using Java sockets
  • No Middleware layer needed, access is direct.
  • Simplest solution available.
  • No client code need be installed.
  • Type 4 drivers auto-download for applets
overview connecting to a database
Overview: Connecting to a Database

// Load the Oracle JDBC driver

Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver").newInstance();

// Connect to the database

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection

(connect-string,user, pass);

// Create a statement

Statement stmt = conn.createStatement ();

// Select data from the emp table

boolean results = stmt.execute("select * from emp");

ResultSet rset = null;

if (results) rset = stmt.getResultSet();

// Walk through the result set

while (rset.next ()) {

System.out.println (rset.getString (1) + rset.getString(2));

….

}

the jdbc driver manager
The JDBC Driver Manager
  • Management layer of JDBC, interfaces between the client and the driver.
    • Keeps a list of available drivers
    • Manages driver login time limits and printing of log and tracing messages
  • Secure because manager will only allow drivers that come from local file system or the same initial class loader requesting a connection
  • Most popular use:
    • Connection getConnection(url, id, passwd);
create a connection to the database
Create a Connection to the database
  • Call the getConnection method on the DriverManager.

Connection conn =

DriverManager.getConnection(url, login, password)

  • URLs:
    • “jdbc:sybase:Tds:skunk:4100/myDB”
    • "jdbc:oracle:thin:@limani.cs.uchicago.edu:1521:cs51024";
  • Only one requirement: the relevant Drivers must be able to recognize their own URL
overview statements
Overview: Statements

// Load the Oracle JDBC driver

Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver").newInstance();

// Connect to the database

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection

(connect-string,user, pass);

// Create a statement

Statement stmt = conn.createStatement ();

// Select data from the emp table

boolean results = stmt.execute("select * from emp");

ResultSet rset = null;

if (results) rset = stmt.getResultSet();

// Walk through the result set

while (rset.next ()) {

System.out.println (rset.getString (1) + rset.getString(2));

….

}

sql statements
SQL Statements

Types of statements:

  • Class Statement
    • Represents a basic SQL statement
    • Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
  • Class PreparedStatement
    • A precompiled SQL statement, which can offer improved performance, especially for large/complex SQL statements
  • Class CallableStatement
    • Allows JDBC programs access to stored procedures

Can be used for both DDL and DML commands

execute an sql statement
Execute an SQL Statement
  • executeQuery(): execute a query and get a ResultSet back
  • executeUpdate(): execute an update and get back an int specifying number of rows acted on
    • UPDATE [table] set [column_name] = value where […]
    • DELETE from [table] where [column_name] = 5
  • execute(): exec. unknown SQL, returns true if a resultSet is available:

Statement genericStmt = conn.createStatement();

if( genericStmt.execute(SQLString)) {

ResultSet rs = genericStmt.getResultSet();

process(); }

else {

int updated = genericStmt.getUpdateCount();

processCount();

}

prepared statements
Prepared Statements
  • Use for complex queries or repeated queries
  • Features:
    • precompiled at database (statement usually sent to database immediately on creation for compilation)
    • supply with new variables each time you call it
  • Example:
    • PreparedStatement ps = conn.prepareStatement(“update table set sales = ? Where custName = ?”);
  • Set with values (use setXXX() methods on PreparedStatement:
    • ps.setInt(1, 400000);
    • ps.setString(2, “United Airlines”);
  • Then execute:
    • int count = ps.executeUpdate();
overview resultsets and cursors
Overview: ResultSets and Cursors

// Load the Oracle JDBC driver

Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver").newInstance();

// Connect to the database

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection

(connect-string,user, pass);

// Create a statement

Statement stmt = conn.createStatement ();

// Select data from the emp table

boolean results = stmt.execute("select * from emp");

ResultSet rset = null;

if (results) rset = stmt.getResultSet();

// Walk through the result set

while (rset.next ()) {

System.out.println (rset.getString (1) + rset.getString(2));

….

}

result sets and cursors
Result Sets and Cursors
  • Result Sets are returned from queries.
  • Possible number of rows: zero, one, or more
  • Cursors are ‘iterators’ that can be user to ‘walk’ through a result set
  • JDBC 2.0 allows for backward as well as forward cursors, including the ability to go to a specific row or a relative row
result sets
Result Sets
  • Iterate over all rows:
    • ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(“select id, price from inventory”);
    • rs.next(), rs.previous(), rs.first(), …
      • call once to access first row: while(rs.next()) {}
  • Extract data from the ResultSet
    • getXXX(columnName/indexVal)
      • getInt()
      • getDouble()
      • getString() (highly versatile, inclusive of others; automatic conversion to String for most types)
      • getObject() (returns a generic Java Object)
    • rs.wasNull() - returns true if last get was Null
overview four more topics
Overview: Four more topics
  • Metadata
  • Transactions
  • Stored procedures
  • Performance
using the jdbc metadata interface
Using the JDBC MetaData Interface
  • ResultSet: ResultSetMetaData m = rs.getMetaData()
  • ResultSetMetaData provides information about the types and properties of the DDL properties of a ResultSet object
  • ResultSetMetaData provides various methods for finding out information about the structure of a ResultSet:
    • getColumnClassName(int col): gets fully-qualified Java class name to which a column value will be mapped; eg. Java.lang.Integer, etc.
    • getColumnCount(): gets the number of columns in the ResultSet
    • getColumnName(int col): gets the name of column
    • int getColumnType(int col): gets the JDBC type (java.sql.Types) for the value stored in col; eg. Value 12 = JDBC VARCHAR, etc.
    • getPrecision(int col): for numbers, gets the mantissa length, for others, gets the number of bytes for column
jdbc transactions
JDBC Transactions
  • A Transaction’s ACID properties are:
    • Atomic: The entire set of actions must succeed or the set fails
    • Consistent: consistent state transfer from one state to the next
    • Isolated: A transaction is encapsulated and unmodifiable until the execution of the transaction set is complete
    • Durable: Changes committed through a transaction survive and tolerate system failures.
  • Classic Example 1: Bank Transfer from one account to another
    • Step 1: withdrawal from Account A
    • Step 2: deposit into Account B
using transactions
Using Transactions
  • Step 1: turn off AutoCommit:
    • conn.setAutoCommit(false);
  • Step 2: create and execute statements like normal
  • Step 3: fish or cut bait: commit or rollback
    • if all succeeded:
      • conn.commit();
    • else, if one or more failed:
      • conn.rollback();
  • Step 4 (Optional): turn autocommit back on:
    • conn.setAutoCommit(true);
rolling back transactions
Rolling Back Transactions
  • When you get a SQLException, you are not told what part of the transaction succeeded and what part failed (this should be irrelevant)
  • Best Practice:
    • try to rollback() (may throw new SQLException)
    • start over
  • Example:

catch( SQLException e) {

try {

conn.rollback();

} catch (SQLException e) { checkPlease(); }

}

autocommit advantages and disadvantages
AutoCommit: Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Favor Manual Transactions:
    • Disabling auto-commit means fewer commits over the wire (from driver to DBMS) which may cut down on IO overhead at the dataserver
  • Favor Autocommit:
    • Enabling autocommit may improve performance when multiple users are vying for database resources because locks are held for shorter periods of time
      • locks are only held per transaction. In autocommit mode, each statement is essentially a transaction
      • locks may be either page-level or row-level locks, the latter being more efficient (Oracle)
transaction i solation levels
Transaction Isolation Levels

To obtain or set the isolation levels use Connection methods:

conn.getTransactionIsolation()

conn.setTransactionIsolation(iLevel)

  • TRANSACTION_NONE
    • Transactions are disabled or unsupported
  • TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED
    • Open policy that allows others to read uncommitted segments of a transaction (i.e. data being changed by another transaction concurently).
  • TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED
    • Closed policy that disallows others’ reading uncommitted segments. They must block until a commit is received, dirty reads are forbidden.
transaction i solation modes
Transaction Isolation Modes
  • TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
    • subsequent read transactions always get same set regardless of alteration until they call commit(), after which they get the changed data. An non-repeatable read is one where Ta reads data, Tb modifies a row that was previously read by Ta, and then Ta reads that data again. Ta has read inconsistent data.
  • TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE
    • The transaction has exclusive read and update privileges to data by locking it; other transactions can neither write nor read the same data. It is the most restrictive transaction isolation level and it ensures that if a query retrieves a result set based on a predicate condition and another transaction inserts data that satisfy the predicate condition, re-execution of the query will return the same result set.
transaction i solation modes summary

Isolation Level

Dirty Read

Non Repeatable Read

Phantom Read

TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED

YES

YES

YES

TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED

NO

YES

YES

TRANSACTION_

REPEATABLE_READ

NO

NO

YES

TRANSACTION_

SERIALIZABLE

NO

NO

NO

Transaction Isolation Modes (summary)
stored procedures
Stored Procedures
  • Used to batch or group multiple SQL statements that are stored in executable form at the database
  • Generally a Stored Procedure is written in a “MetaLanguage” defined by the DBMS vendor
  • Written in some internal programming language of the DBMS:
    • Oracle’s PL/SQL
    • Sybase’s Transact-SQL
  • THESE LANGUAGES ARE NON-PORTABLE from one DBMS to another (with the exception of the SQLJ standard, which allows you to write SQL in standard Java and have that understood by any DBMS that supports the SQLJ standard).
why use stored procedures
Why Use Stored Procedures?
  • Faster Execution of SQL (compiled and in-memory stored query plan)
  • Reduced Network Traffic
  • Automation of complex or sensitive transactions
  • Syntax checking at time of creation of SP
  • Syntax supports if, else, while loops, local variables, etc., all of which dynamic SQL doesn’t have
using stored procedures
Using Stored Procedures
  • Create a CallableStatement (using prepareCall which is similar to prepareStatement)

CallableStatement stmt = conn.prepareCall(“{call sp_setBalance(?,?)}”

stmt.registerOutParameter(2, Types.FLOAT);

stmt.setInt(1, custID);

stmt.setFloat(2, 213432.625);

stmt.execute();

Float newBalance = stmt.getFloat(2);

  • Always register OUT or INOUT parameters in stored procedures using registerOutParameter()
performance
Performance
  • Donald Bales, Java Programming with ODBC, chapter 19

http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/jorajdbc/chapter/ch19.html