clean air act n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Clean Air Act PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Clean Air Act

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 136

Clean Air Act - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 131 Views
  • Uploaded on

Clean Air Act. A U.S. law that authorizes the EPA to set limits on the amount of specific air pollutants that are permitted everywhere in the United States Focuses on six air pollutants (lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone) . Dust Dome.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Clean Air Act


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Clean Air Act

      McClain
    2. A U.S. law that authorizes the EPA to set limits on the amount of specific air pollutants that are permitted everywhere in the United States Focuses on six air pollutants (lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone) McClain
    3. Dust Dome

      McClain
    4. A dome of heated air that surrounds an urban area and contains a lot of air pollution McClain
    5. Electrostatic Preceptor

      McClain
    6. An air pollution control device that gives ash a positive electrical charge so that it adheres to negatively charged plates Used in smelting and other combustible processes to remove dust, sulfuric acid & lead oxide. Some home purifiers/filters use this process, but produces ozone (bad for lungs) McClain
    7. Green House Gases

      McClain
    8. The gases that absorb infrared radiation, which include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and tropospheric ozone, all of which are accumulating in the atmosphere as a result of human activities McClain
    9. Hydrocarbons

      McClain
    10. A diverse group of organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon McClain
    11. Industrial Smog

      McClain
    12. The traditional, London-type smoke pollution, which consists principally of sulfur oxidesand particulate matter Smog is the brown-colored haze which hangs in the air over industrial areas. It is often visible over cities, particularly in summer when the particles in smog catch the light. McClain
    13. Nitrogen oxides

      McClain
    14. Gases produced by the chemical interactions between nitrogen and oxygen when a source of energy, such as combustion of fuels, produces high temperatures Often referred to as Nox McClain
    15. Particulate Matter

      McClain
    16. Solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the atmosphere Often referred to as PM McClain
    17. Persistent Organic Pollutants

      McClain
    18. A group of persistent, toxic, chemicals that bioaccumulate in organisms and can travel long distances through air and water to contaminate sites far removed from their source; some disrupt the endocrine system, cause cancer, or adversely affect the developmental processes of organisms Also referred to as POPs McClain
    19. Photochemical Smog

      McClain
    20. A brownish orange haze formed by complex chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogenoxides, and hydrocarbonssome of the pollutants in photochemical smog include peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), ground level ozone, and aldehydes McClain
    21. Reading Prong

      McClain
    22. Stretches from near Reading Pennsylvania, through northern New Jersey and southern New York. Soil contains elevated concentrations of uranium, the decay of which produces gaseous radonwhich seeps into houses and long term exposure results in lung cancer. McClain
    23. Radon

      McClain
    24. Info. McClain
    25. Sick Building Syndrome

      McClain
    26. Eye irritations, nausea, headaches, respiratory infections, depression, and fatigue caused by the presence of air pollution inside office buildings McClain
    27. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

      McClain
    28. An international (UN) treatyeffective in 2004 whose goal is to phase out the use of at least 12 persistent toxic chemicals (POPs), including PCBs, dioxins and furans (chemical contaminants), and DDT and eight other pesticides McClain
    29. Thermal Inversion

      McClain
    30. A layer of cold air temporarily trapped near the ground by a warmer, upper layer (acts like a cape & locks in smog). If this phenomenon persists, air pollutants may build up to harmful or even dangerous levels. Common in Los Angeles McClain
    31. Urban Heat Islands

      McClain
    32. Local heat buildup in an area of high population density with lots of darksurfaces (roads & buildings) that lowers albedo & buildings block wind circulation. Green space & green roofs helps reduce heat buildup.Often hotter downtown than in surrounding suburbs. McClain
    33. Cultural Eutrophication

      McClain
    34. Also known as Artificial Eutrophication.Over-nourishment of an aquatic ecosystem by nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In this event, the pace of eutrophication is rapidly accelerated due to human activities such as agriculture and discharge from sewage treatment plants McClain
    35. Biological Oxygen Demand

      McClain
    36. Also known as BOD.The amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms to decompose the organic material in a given volume of water. McClain
    37. Bioremediation

      McClain
    38. A method employed to clean up a hazardous waste site that uses microorganisms to break down the toxic pollutants. Genetic engineering is helping create organisms that can bioremediate. McClain
    39. Clean Water Act

      McClain
    40. A U.S. law that has two basic goals: Created in 1972 & amended in 1977, 1981, & 1987 To eliminate the discharge of pollutants in U.S. waterways 2. To attain water quality levels that make these waterways safe to fish and swim in. McClain
    41. Eutrophic Lake

      McClain
    42. A lake enriched with nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates and consequently overgrown with plants or algae (blooms); LOW dissolved oxygen (DO); fish kills result McClain
    43. Fecal Coliform

      McClain
    44. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. A test can indicate of fecalcontamination with E.coliContamination usually comes from human sewage, livestock, and pet waste (dog & bird poop are common) McClain
    45. Hypoxia

      McClain
    46. LOW dissolved oxygen(DO) concentrations that occur in many bodies of water when nutrients stimulate the growth of algae that subsequently die and are decomposed by oxygen-using bacteria (decomposition).Creates “dead zones” McClain
    47. Non-Point Source Pollution

      McClain
    48. Pollutants that enter bodies of water over large areasrather than being concentrated at a single point of entry. Example: Cars on roads leak oil as they drive around all day/everyday…rain washes oil into water systems McClain
    49. Oligotrophic Lake

      McClain
    50. A lake that has minimal(few) nutrients buthigh dissolved oxygen. Usually clear & often used as drinking water. Has slow growth rate & low population density. McClain
    51. Point Source Pollution

      McClain
    52. Water pollution that can be tracedto a specific spot (such as a factory or sewage treatment plant) because it is discharged into the environment through pipes, sewers, or ditches McClain
    53. Primary Sludge

      McClain
    54. A slimy mixture of bacteria-laden solids that settles out from sewage wastewater duringprimary treatment McClain
    55. Primary Treatment

      McClain
    56. Also known as “mechanical treatment” or screening. Treating wastewater by removing gross suspended and floating large particles by mechanical processes. Large particles can include toilet paper and other trash. McClain
    57. Secondary Treatment

      McClain
    58. Treating wastewater biologically, by using microorganisms to decompose the suspended organic material (poop, food waste & soaps); occurs after primary treatment McClain
    59. Secondary Treatment

      McClain
    60. Biological solids are neutralized, then disposed of or reused; the treated water is disinfected either chemically (ozone or chlorine) or physically (lagoons or microfiltration). McClain
    61. Red Tide

      McClain
    62. A red, orange, or brown coloration of water caused by a bloom, or population explosion, of algae called dinoflagulates. They produce natural toxins, deplete dissolved oxygen, and have caused fish, birds, & mammal deaths. Produce a gas that irritateseyes and lungs. Red tide can end up in filter feeders like oysters and make people sick if they eat them. McClain
    63. Thermal Pollution

      McClain
    64. Water pollution that occurs when heatedwater produced during many industrial processes is released into waterways. The water is used to COOL coal & nuclear power plants (and other industries like steel) and the heated water is released into nearby waterways. The hot water is LOW in oxygen, and the large temperature difference kills fish. McClain
    65. Bottom Ash

      McClain
    66. The residual ash left and stays at the bottom of an incineratorduring coal combustion. McClain
    67. Fly Ash

      McClain
    68. The portion of the ash that escapes out the chimney (flue) of an incinerator during coal combustion.That ash can be trapped using electrostatic precipitators to prevent air pollution. McClain
    69. Municipal Solid Waste

      McClain
    70. Solid waste generated in homes, office buildings, retail stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, prisons, libraries, and other commercial and institutional facilities. McClain
    71. Non-Municipal Solid Waste

      McClain
    72. Solid waste generated by industry, agriculture, and mining McClain
    73. Photodegradable

      McClain
    74. Breaking down upon exposure to sunlight. Plastics are photodegradable (not a full degrade…small pieces are left & can be eaten by animals) McClain
    75. Polychlorinated biphenyls

      McClain
    76. Also called PCBsChlorine-containing organic compounds that enjoyed a wide variety of industrial uses like coolant fluids until their dangerous properties, slow to degrade and therefore persist in the environmentCauses CANCERBanned by the United States Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001 McClain
    77. Dioxins

      McClain
    78. Produced by anthropogenic and natural (volcanoes) processes. Produced during smelting, chlorine bleaching of paper, production of herbicides & pesticides. Largest source is from solid waste & hospital waste incinerators. Accumulates in the food web, 90% of human exposure comes from food (meat, dairy, & fish). Can cause skin lesions, alter liver function, impair immune & reproductive systems, and cancer. McClain
    79. Sanitary Landfill

      McClain
    80. The most common method of disposal of solid waste by compacting it and burying it under a shallow layer of soil. Produces large amounts of methane once buried as bacteria break down the materials. Landfills account for 1/3 of all methane emissions in the US. Methane is vented using pipes. Researching technology to capture & use the methane. McClain
    81. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Act)

      McClain
    82. AU.S. law which established a program to tackle the huge challenge of cleaning up abandoned and illegal toxic waste sites across the United States. Money comes from a tax on chemical & petroleum companies.Created after discovery of a toxic waste dump was under Love Canal,New York. People had unknowingly built houses & a school on the dump and many became very sick & died. Then people were stuck in houses they could not sell. McClain
    83. LD50

      McClain
    84. Lethal Dose that kills50% of population of test organisms McClain
    85. ED50

      McClain
    86. Effective Dose that causes side effect in 50% of the population of test organisms McClain
    87. Teratogen

      McClain
    88. Agents that result in fetal/birth defect.Examples: Thalidomide (sedative was used during pregnancy) Measles causes deafnessAlcohol causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome McClain
    89. Acid Deposition

      McClain
    90. Also known as Acid RainPrimary pollutants, sulfates & nitrogen combine with water in atmosphere to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) & nitric acid vapor (HNO3) McClain
    91. Aerosols

      McClain
    92. Solid particles & droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Can help COOL earth (like clouds do) McClain
    93. Asbestos

      McClain
    94. A naturally occurring fibrous mineral that is flame/fire resistant previously used as insulationfor pipes & housing. Carcinogen causes mesothelioma. McClain
    95. Carbon monoxide

      McClain
    96. A colorless, odorless gas that results when fossil fuels are not fully combusted. Causes headaches, dizziness, loss of consciences, & death. Malfunctioning heating systems in houses have caused many deaths…a silent killer because you don’t realize you are being exposed usually until it is too late. McClain
    97. Carbonic Acid

      McClain
    98. Formed when water reacts with carbondioxide…lowers pH of water (acidic). The oceans have absorbed almost half of CO2 emitted by humans. Has lowered the world ocean pH by 0.1 and is called ocean acidification. McClain
    99. Chlorofluorocarbons

      McClain
    100. Also known as CFCs.Primary human-made compounds involved in the depletion of the ozone. Chlorines in CFCs break O3bonds. 1 CFC and destroy 100,000 ozone molecules. They are commonly used as refrigerants in air conditioners, refrigerators, and aerosol propellants. Banned by Montreal Protocol (UN treaty). McClain
    101. Hydro chlorofluorocarbons

      McClain
    102. Also known as HCFCsManmade compounds have potential to react with stratospheric ozone. Because they have a shorter atmospheric lifespan than CFCs, they tend to break down in the troposphere before delivering reactive chlorine to the stratosphere (to break O3 bonds). A CFC alternative. McClain
    103. Hydrofluorocarbons

      McClain
    104. Also known as HFCsManmade compounds that contain NO chlorineand do NOT directly affect stratospheric ozone. Viewed as acceptable long-term alternative to CFCs and HCFCs. But HFCs DO contribute to global warming. McClain
    105. Ground-level Ozone

      McClain
    106. A secondary pollutant found in the troposphere (where we live), considered a pollutant. Formed by sunlight reacting with NOx and VOCs. Is a major component of photochemical smog, and causes respiratory and plant damage. McClain
    107. Ice Core

      McClain
    108. A sample of ice that is typically drilled and removed from an ice sheet, usually the polar caps of Antarctica or Greenland. Layers of the ice core are analyzed for trapped gasand deposits, which give an accurate representation of historical climate & can be used to develop a climate record. McClain
    109. Peroxyacetylnitrate

      McClain
    110. Also known as PANProduced by reaction of some volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) with oxygen and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), partially responsible for some negative effects of smog. Can decrease lung capacity and may cause emphysema. McClain
    111. SOx

      McClain
    112. The gases containing sulfur and oxygen (includes many combinations) that play a role in industrial smog. Present in crude oil & coal and SOx is released when they are burned. They include sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO4). McClain
    113. Volatile Organic Compounds

      McClain
    114. Also known as VOCsUnstable substances that can be released as gases from a wide variety of products, including carpeting, paints, aerosol sprays, cleaning products, building supplies, pesticides, printers, glues, wood preservatives, moth balls, and air fresheners. Examples: formaldehyde, acetone, and benzene. Causes eye, nose, throat irritation, headache, liver & kidney damage, nausea, and cancer. McClain
    115. Volatile Organic Compounds

      McClain
    116. Also known as VOCsUnstable substances that can be released as gases from a wide variety of products, including carpeting, paints, aerosol sprays, cleaning products, building supplies, pesticides, printers, glues, wood preservatives, moth balls, and air fresheners. Causes eye, nose, throat irritation, headache, liver & kidney damage, nausea, and cancer. McClain
    117. Minamata Disease

      McClain
    118. 27 tons of mercury-containing compounds from industrial processes were dumped into Minamata Bay, Japan between 1932-1968. The mercury collected (bioaccumulated) in fish & shellfish caught in the bay.Symptoms include blurred vision, hearing loss, blindness, loss of muscular coordination, reproductive disorders, death. Over 2,500 victims were mainly children born with it. McClain
    119. Exxon Valdez

      McClain
    120. In 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez spilled up to 30 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. About 250,000 sea birds, 3,000 sea otters, 300 seals, 300 bald eagles, 22 whales died along with billions of salmon and herring eggs. After this spill, the US requires all tankers to have a double hull to prevent the same kinds of accidents. McClain
    121. Hole in Ozone

      McClain
    122. Has caused: Increased skin cancer rates, sunburn rates, cataracts, crop damage, reduction in crop production, increase mutation rates & chromosomal damage, & climate change. McClain
    123. Reducing Ozone Depletion

      McClain
    124. Tariffs on products produced in countries that allow the use of CFCs.Use of HCFCs instead of CFCs.Use of helium, ammonia, propane, or butane as a coolant alternativesTax credits for turning in old refrigerators and air conditionsSupport legislation that reduces ozone-destroying products. McClain
    125. Impacts of Global Warming

      McClain
    126. Shutdown of thermocline circulation (ocean conveyor belt)Increased wild fires & pest infectionMethane released from melting permafrost Decreased agriculture productivityDestabilization of governmentsRise in sea levelsOcean acidification: Increased CO2 McClain
    127. Thermohaline Circulation

      McClain
    128. Another name for theOcean Conveyor Belt McClain
    129. Montreal Protocol

      McClain
    130. 1989: An agreement among nations requiring the phase-out of chemicals that damage the ozone layer (CFCs) McClain
    131. Kyoto Protocol

      McClain
    132. International treaty on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (especially CO2). Problem is that developing countries do NOThave target amounts for reduction, but are to work to reduce emissions. The US disagrees with not forcing developing countries not having targets and have refused to ratify (sign/agree) the protocol. McClain
    133. International Panel on Climate Change

      McClain
    134. Also called the IPCCAn international scientific intergovernmental body under the UN. It produces reports that supports the UNFCCC’s goal. Leading climatologists & other scientists write summary reports for policymakers. Its focus is on: 1. Human-induced climate change2. The impacts of human-induced climate change3. Options for adaptation & mitigation McClain
    135. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

      McClain
    136. Also called the UNFCCCThe IPCC produces reports that supports the UNFCCC’s (formally known as Earth Summit) goal. The UNFCCC is a treaty among UN countries. The main goal of UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2in particular) in the atmosphere. It later negotiated for the Kyoto Protocol (which the US refuses to agree to) McClain