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Digital Retorik 8. kursusgang Persuasion. PERSUASION BY FUN. IDAG. Gruppe 0: O’Keefe-tekst Persuasion: forelæsning v Lisbeth In-class øvelse Øvelser: Kort gennemgang af MyStory f. andre i gruppen Kampagneanalyseøvelse. DAGENS LÆRINGSMÅL. forståelse af begrebet ”persuasion”

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Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion

Digital Retorik8. kursusgang

Persuasion



Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion
IDAG

Gruppe 0: O’Keefe-tekst

Persuasion: forelæsning v Lisbeth

In-class øvelse

Øvelser:

Kort gennemgang af MyStory f. andre i gruppenKampagneanalyseøvelse


Dagens l ringsm l
DAGENS LÆRINGSMÅL

  • forståelse af begrebet ”persuasion”

  • analyse af overordnet formål med persuasiv (strategisk) kommunikation

  • analyse af anvendelse af motiverende/overbevisende virkemidler i digital kontekst, herunder særligt ”information right on time” og ”computer som social actor”


Persuasion
PERSUASION

DEFINITION

O’Keefe

”a succesful intentional effort at influencing another’s mental state through communication in a circumstance in which the persuadee has some measure of freedom” (Persuasion, s. 5)

Fogg:

”an attempt to hange attitudes or behaviours or both (without using coercion or deception)...persuasion...implies voluntary change.... focus on the planned persuasive effects(Persuasive Technology, s. 15-16).


Persuasion1
PERSUASION

- og retorik??

Charteris-Black:

Rhetoric is the art of persuading others, therefore rhetoric and persuasion are inseperable since any definition of rhetoric necessarily includes the idea of persuasion. The essential difference between the two is that rhetoric refers to the act of communication from the hearer’s perspective while persuasion refers both to speaker intentions and to succesful outcomes.(, s. 8-9)

  • den ”snævre” retorikforståelse

  • effekten af kommunikation

  • påvirkning af holdninger, følelser, værdier



Persuasion og pr
PERSUASION OG PR

Strategisk komm. perspektivet (Wilson/Ogden)

”public opinion is the collection of beliefs, attitudes and opinions expressed by the majority of individuals within a particular group or public about a particular issue or topic of interest to the individuals in that group”

(kerneværdier, overbevisninger=> holdninger + self-interests)”the message itself may not be designed to persuade, but the targeted publics may need to be persuaded to pay attention to the message” (p. 31)

”attitudes drives behaviour” - behaviour: the ultimate objective


Strat komm og computer
STRAT KOMM OG COMPUTER

  • Overtalelse på individplan, men relateret til ”gruppen” (i sig selv afhængig af ”sagen”)

  • I relation til computer/web:

    - overtalelse finder kun sted på web

    - overtalelse starter i et andet medie men fuldføres på web

    - overtalelse starter på web men fuldføres i andet medie

  • Hvad er den ”begivenhed”, der får folk til at ændre mening/handle? Finder den sted offline – online?


Fogg gruppen
FOGG/ GRUPPEN

”Among people, similarity emerges in opinion and attitudes, personal traits, lifestyle, background and membership. Designers of persuasive technology should be aware of these forms of similarity and strive to build them into their products” (Fogg, kompendietekst, s. 99)


Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion

FOGG OG ”CAPOTOLOGY”

  • Computerens fordele:

  • kan være mere vedholdende end mennesker

  • større grad af anonymitet

  • administrere store mængde data

  • anvende mange modaliteter

  • skalerer nemt

  • ubiquitous (”være hvor mennesker ikke kan være”)

  • (simulation)

  • Fogg: computeren selv som virkemiddel

    • at gøre det ”nemmere” (tool)

    • at identificere sig med (medium/simulation)

    • empati/sympati etc med computer som forestillet personlighed (social actor)


Digital persuasion som felt
DIGITAL PERSUASION SOM FELT

digitale retoriske virkemidler

HCI, webdesign

persuasive design

”ønsket overtalelse”

strategisk kommunikation (kampagner, PR, marketing)


Macrosuasion microsuasion
MACROSUASION - MICROSUASION

Fogg:

Macrosuasion:”det overordnede overtalelsesønske”(f.eks. ”stop med at ryge”)

Microsuasion:delelementer, der enten understøtter macrosuasion eller bruges som led i overordnet kommunikationsintention(f.eks. overtale folk til at afgive personlig info på SNS-site).

- ”reminders, visualisation, praise, ranking” etc


Persuasion pr og strategisk komm
PERSUASION, PR OG STRATEGISK KOMM

kommunikationspolitik, overordnet imageønske, ”overbevisningsønske”, mål,”persuasive strategies”

VISIONMACROSUASION

generelle procedurer/tiltag for at nå målet (f.eks. etablere eller redesigne website, lave kampagnesite finde ressourcer, drift, målgruppe-undersøgelse)

TAKTISK NIVEAUPLANLÆGNING AF PRODUKTIONSPROCES

situation, dispotio, brug af appelformer, materiale, stil, billedsprog osv,

OPERATIONELT NIVEAU(RETORIK/PR/PERSUASIVE DESIGN I PRAKSIS/MICROSUASION)

Model inspireret af Helle Petersen: Strategisk Kommunikation, 2003




Computer as social actor
COMPUTER AS SOCiAL ACTOR

Social cues

  • Fysiske (attraktive, ”likeable” agents)

  • Psykologiske (tilskrevet ”psykologi”, personlighed)

  • Sproglige (comp. ”taler” til en, ros)

  • Social dynamik (reciprocitet)

  • Sociale roller (computer som ”autoritet”, ven, opponent osv)





Persuasion by action
PERSUASION BY ACTION?!

Søren Schultz Hansen: ”Det, der tiltrækker kundernes opmærksomhed og interesse på internettet er nemlig ikke billeder, animationer, fest og farver, men derimod interaktionsmuligheder....

[i test ved skærm]: Brugerne leder simpelthen først og fremmest efter de steder, hvor de kan interagere, tage styringen og komme videre, fordi internettet kalder på aktiv handlen, medvirken og inovlering. Kunderne vil i dialog, ikke bare tales til, og endnu mindre råbes til.”

I kapitlet ”Reklamer på internettet” s. 51 i Fra massekommunikation til samtale





Persuasion by action gaming
PERSUASION BY ACTION/GAMING

Bang, Svahn & Gustafsson: “Persuasive design of a mobile energy conservation game with direct feedback and social cues”, DIGRA Conference Proceedings 2009,


Fogg selv om credibility og captology
FOGG SELV OM CREDIBILITY OG CAPTOLOGY

http://www.slideshare.net/bjfogg/web-credibility-bj-fogg-stanford-university


Fogg selv om credibility og captology1
FOGG SELV OM CREDIBILITY OG CAPTOLOGY

http://www.slideshare.net/bjfogg/web-credibility-bj-fogg-stanford-university



Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion

MOTIVERENDE DESIGNHOFMAN HANSEN

  • ”Motiverende design bygger på ideen om, at en hjemmeside kan designes, så virksomheden eller organisationen bag den mest effektivt opnår at ændre på brugernes holdninger eller adfærd”

  • (Motiverende design, s. 7)

dansk designorienteret fortolkning af Fogg’s tanker om persuasive technology/design


Motiverende design hofman hansen
MOTIVERENDE DESIGNHOFMAN HANSEN

9 strategier:

1. Gør det synligt og simpelt

2. Vær illustrativ

3. Vælg en passende grafisk stilart

4. Skriv forståeligt og kortfattet

5. Skriv noget relevant

6. Vælg en passende skrivestil og genre

7. Gør grundstrukturen enkel

8. Vis informationen på rette tid og sted

9. Skab en god historie


Motiverende design info p rette tid og sted
MOTIVERENDE DESIGN/INFO PÅ RETTE TID OG STED

  • trigger words

  • ”ekstra” information på rigtige tidspunkt i søgeproces (når bruger er motiveret for ”mersalg”)

  • personalisering/skræddersyning - regelbaseret personalisering

    - kollaborativ filterering

    - tilpasning af personlig side

    - ikke-teknisk opdeling af målgruppen

  • tilpassede guider





Personalisering1
PERSONALISERING

ESCORT PIGER FRA NABOLAGET?!


Fogg m fl persuasion og sociale medier
FOGG M.FL: PERSUASION OG SOCIALE MEDIER

  • Fogg’s forskning i Facebook

  • Persuasion på 2 niveauer:

  • Overtalelse til at deltage og ”blive” hængende på det sociale netværk (site producer) [1]

  • Overtalelse til at anvende og agere i forhold til 3rd party applikationer /group behaviour

  • (applikationsproducent) [2, 3]

  • Cf. [1] Fogg & Iizawa: ”Online Persuasion in Facebook and Mixi: A Cross-Cultural Comparison”

  • [2] ] Weiksner, Fogg og Liu: ”Six Patterns for Persuasion on Online Social Networks”

  • [3] Fogg: ”Mass Interpersonal Persuasion: On Early View of a New Phenomenon”


Sns og siteproducer persuasion
SNS og SITEPRODUCER PERSUASION

Behaviour chain: Discovery > Superficial Involvement > True Commitment

Persuasive design elementer på Facebook:ad 1) oprettelse og edit-knap altid nem tilgængelig (low tech barrier)

ad 2) ”Bulk” invitation tool + publikation af venneantal (social validity + desirability)

ad 3) notification tool + nem adgang til indhold (barrier reduction strategy) + kortform (fx svarboks størrelse) + grafisk nærhed

ad 4) email notification + løfte om social news + venners aktivitet som provokation (retaliation eller reciprocity, fx poke)


Sns og application persuasion
SNS OG APPLICATION PERSUASION

Weiksner, Fogg & Liu

Brugeradfærd baseret på almene (gruppe)psykologisk principper som:reciprocitet, kognitiv dissonans, behov for identitetsudtryk og impression management, behov for at tilhøre gruppe og ”social validation”, blive ”fanget” af investering og commitment, applaus, social identitet, social status osv


Sns og application persuasion1
SNS OG APPLICATION PERSUASION

Fogg:”Mass interpersonal Persuasion” (2008): At overtale en ”masse” via interpersonelle relationer (forsøg med egne studenter, der lavede apps: nåede 16 mill. brugere!)


Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion

“My conclusion is that Facebook-groups are brilliantly suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

http://virkeligheden.dk/?p=1097, 23/9/2009

Overtalelse til surveydeltagelse via ”skam” samt markedsføring af egne kompetencer!


Persuasion by viral guilt
PERSUASION BY VIRAL GUILT? suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

Facebook d. 17. oktober:


Fornuftens stemme
FORNUFTENS STEMME suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”


In class velse
IN-CLASS ØVELSE suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

StopFør52 og 2 i ca. 12 min

  • hvad er kampagnens formål? (hvilken holdnings- og adfærdsændring ønskes?)

  • hvordan fungerer koblingen mlm sociale medier og budskabet? hvilke social-psykologiske mekanismer spilles der på?

  • tror I den nuværende kampagne formår at ændre unges adfærd som ønsket? hvorfor/hvorfor ikke? hvad skal evt. ændres?


Ufornuftens stemme
- UFORNUFTENS STEMME?! suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”


Persuasion er en relativ st rrelse
PERSUASION ER EN RELATIV STØRRELSE suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

  • ethvert ”persuasionforsøg” afhængig af modtagers forforståelse, kendskab til genre og produkt, selvinteresse i forhold til ”budskabet”/komm.indhold

  • Jo mindre kendskab til produkt, jo større betydning for afkodning er ”agents” kompetencer og intentioner (persuasion knowledge model)

  • Jo mindre involvering i produktet, desto større chancer for at vi afkoder f.eks. credibility i forhold til perifære tegn (Elaboration Likelyhood Model)


Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion
PKM suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”


Videre referencer pkm
VIDERE REFERENCER (PKM) suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

Persuasive Design site: Literature Review>Consumer behaviour:

http://laurabright.com/papers/persuasivedesign/literature_review/consumer_behavior

Huang, Ming-Hui (2003). Designing Website Attributes to Induce Experiential Encounters. Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 19, 425-442, på http://www.elsevier.com/locate/comphumbeh/

Liu, Yuping & Shrum, L.J. (2002). “What is Interactivity and Is It Always Such a Good Thing? Implications of Definition, Person, and Situation for the Influence of Interactivity on Advertising Effectiveness”. Journal of Advertising, 31(4).

Phillips, Barbara J. (2000). The Impact of Verbal Anchoring on Consumer Response to Image Ads. Journal of Advertising, Volume 26, 77-87.

Findes på: http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing advertising/advertising/644743-1.html


Velser
ØVELSER suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

  • Vi mødes til startoplæg 13.00 i auditoriet

  • Gruppearbejde:- kort status på MyStory

    - kampagneanalyse

  • Plenum:- diskussion af kampagneanalyse


Digital retorik 8 kursusgang persuasion

VISUEL KOMMUNIKATION OG MULTIMODALE VIRKEMIDLER suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”

LÆS LITTERATUR TIL KURSUSGANG 9:

Kjeldsen (K), McCloud (K),  Kress tekst (K), Latour (web) – nb! Kress og Latour svære.GRUPPE 9 FREMLÆGGER KJELDSEN-TEKST

NÆSTE GANG


In class velse1
IN-CLASS ØVELSE suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”


Sidste rs kampagne 2008
SIDSTE ÅRS KAMPAGNE (2008) suited for promoting (or branding) a single cause which people will join if it fits within their values and online identity.  And if you don’t reach 5000 members, it is even possible to contact your supporters directly. But if you try to create any kind of democratic movement which needs horizontal communication an decision power, a Facebook-group is a BAD tool!”