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Imperialism in Southeast Asia & Africa. Chapter 14 sections 1 & 2 World History. Section 1. Colonial rule in southeast asia. Old vs. New Imperialism. Old: European nations wanted to set up trading posts where they could conduct business and missionary activities

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Imperialism in southeast asia africa

Imperialism in Southeast Asia & Africa

Chapter 14 sections 1 & 2

World History

Colonial rule in southeast asia

Section 1

Colonial rule in southeast asia

Old vs new imperialism
Old vs. New Imperialism

  • Old: European nations wanted to set up trading posts where they could conduct business and missionary activities

  • New: European nations wanted total control over huge amounts of foreign territory

White man s burden
“White Man’s Burden”

  • Argument Europeans had the moral responsibility to civilize “primitive people” and bring Christianity to the “heathen masses”

Great britain
Great Britain

  • Founded Singapore (City of the Lion) in 1819 which became a major port for ships coming to and from China

  • Next the British took over Burma

    • To protect its possessions in India

    • Wanted an overland route into China


  • Forced Vietnam to accept French protection from the British in 1857

  • Protectorate: a political unit that depends on another government for its protection

  • Vietnamese Empire becomes a French protectorate in 1884

  • Extend protection to neighboring Cambodia, Laos, Annam, & Tonkin

  • Becomes known as Union of French Indochina


  • The only independent country in Southeast Asia

  • Kings promoted Western learning & maintained good relationships with European powers

  • Britain & France agreed to keep Thailand as an independent buffer b/t their possessions

What do you mean by buffer
What do you mean by buffer?

See how Thailand is right between British controlled Burma and the countries that make up French Indochina? That is what a buffer is – something, anything that creates space b/t two things.

Direct vs indirect rule
Direct vs. Indirect Rule

  • Indirect Rule: local rulers kept their positions of authority and status in the new colonial government

    • Easier access to natural resources

    • Less effect on local culture

    • Lowered the cost of colonial government

  • Direct Rule: local rulers are removed from power and replaced with officials from the mother country

Humanitarian huh
Humanitarian, huh?

  • Many Westerners feared native people gaining political rights – even teaching them about representative government & democracy

  • Colonial powers did NOT want colonists to develop their own industries, only continue to supply the raw materials that fuel industry in the mother country and buy those products

Economic life under colonial rule
Economic Life Under Colonial Rule

  • Materials Exported: teak wood, rubber, spices, tea, coffee, palm oil, tin, sugar

  • Plantation agriculture – native peasants worked as laborers on plantations owned by colonial elites

  • Wages were kept low to maximize profits

  • Conditions were poor and led to many deaths

Benefits of colonial rule
Benefits of Colonial Rule

  • Beginnings of modern economic systems

  • Built roads, railroads, communication networks, and other pieces of infrastructure that were good for everyone

  • Development of an entrepreneurial class because of the potential for exporting desirable goods and raw materials

Resistance to colonial rule
Resistance to Colonial Rule

  • Many were most unhappy about being ruled by Western powers

  • Most frequent revolts came from peasants, who were furious they were pushed off of their land to create plantations

  • Eventually an intellectual middle class develops educated in Western ideas that pushes for native rights, then independence

Empire building in africa

Section 2

Empire building in africa

West africa
West Africa

B/t 1880-1900 European rivals had nearly all of Africa under their control

By 1890 the slave trade that affected W. Africa for so long was nearly gone

Now Euros were interested in trading manufactured goods for natural resources

European govt’s began to push for permanent settlements along the coast

North africa
North Africa

Muhammad Ali created a separate Egyptian state in 1805 and implemented reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world

Europeans became interested in Egypt b/c they wanted to build a canal connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas

The Suez Canal was completed in 1867

1875 Britain bought Egypt’s share of the canal – saw it as their lifeline to India

Italy was defeated by Ethiopia in its attempt to take over the country

Central africa
Central Africa

Explorers from the West went into the dense tropical jungles

They encouraged European governments to send settlers to the Congo River Basin

Belgium was the one country to seize the moment and claim vast stretches of Central Africa

Belgium = area south of the Congo River

France = area north of the Congo River

East africa
East Africa

Intense competition b/t Germany and Great Britain for colonies here

Most of East Africa had not yet been claimed by European powers

Berlin Conference, 1884

Settle claims in East Africa b/t Portugal, Belgium, Germany, Great Britain

NO AFRICAN delegates were present!!

South africa
South Africa

Boers (Afrikaners) descendents of the original Dutch settlers in South Africa

Believed white supremacy was ordained by God & forced natives onto reservations

Britain took control of all of S. Africa after defeating the Boers in the Boer War

Formed the Union of South Africa in 1910 where only whites could vote

System of government sponsored segregation in South Africa becomes known as Apartheid

Colonial powers
Colonial Powers

The only independent land left in Africa in 1914 was Liberia

Mostly tried to employ indirect rule, but in reality it was still foreign officials making the decisions w/local leaders enforcing them

Others (France) used direct rule

Countries with African Possessions

Netherlands, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Spain


Annex: to incorporate new nearby territory into an existing political unit

Indigenous: native to a region – can be used to describe many things (people, plants, animals, etc.)