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Article of psychology. Methods. Psychology of sensation and perception. Olena Smashna. Psychology - one of sciences about a person, his life and activity. The article of it is psychical activity of person, its psychical processes, states and properties.

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Psychology - one of sciences about a person, his life and activity. The article of it is psychical activity of person, its psychical processes, states and properties.

General psychology is science, which studies essence and general conformities to the law of origin, functioning and development of psyche.

wilhelm wundt the founder of psychology
Wilhelm WundtThe Founder of Psychology
  • By the second half of the 1800s, the stage had been set for the emergence of psychologyas a distinct scientific discipline. The leading proponent of this idea was a Germanphysiologist named Wilhelm Wundt.
  • Wundt used scientific methods to study fundamentalpsychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to visualor auditory stimuli. For example,Wundttried to measure precisely how long ittook a person to consciously detect thesight and sound of a bell being struck.
the first psychology research laboratory
The first psychology research laboratory
  • A major turning point in psychology occurred in 1874, when Wundt published his landmark text, Principles of Physiological Psychology.
  • In this book, Wundt outlined the connections between physiologyand psychology. He also promoted his belief that psychology should be established as a separate scientific discipline that would use experimental methods to study mental processes
  • A few years later, in 1879, Wundt realized that goal when he opened the first psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig. Many regard this event as marking the formal beginning of psychology as an experimental science
the titchener s approach
The Titchener’s approach
  • Titchener eventually departed from Wundt’s position and developed his ownideas on the nature of psychology. Titchener’s approach, called structuralism, becamethe first major school of thought in psychology.
  • Structuralism*held thateven our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elementalstructures, or component parts, of sensations and feelings. To identify thesestructures of conscious thought, Titchener trained subjects in a procedure calledintrospection. The subjects would view a simple stimulus, such as a book, andthen try to reconstruct their sensations and feelings immediately after viewingit. (In psychology, a stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight,sound, smell, touch or taste. They might first report on the colors they saw, thenthe smells, and so on, in the attempt to create a total description of their consciousexperience.

*Structuralism- early school of psychology that emphasizedstudying the most basic components,or structures, of consciousexperiences.

  • The main proponent of American psychologywas one of Harvard’s most outstanding teachers—William James.
  • James hadfirst become intrigued by the emerging science of psychology after reading one ofWundt’s articles, entitled “Recent Advances in the Field of Physiological Psychology,”in the late 1860s.
  • In the early 1870s, James began teaching a physiology and anatomy classat Harvard University. An intense, enthusiastic teacher, James was prone tochanging the subject matter of his classes as his own interests changed
  • Gradually, his lectures came to focus more on psychology than onphysiology. By the late 1870s, James was teaching classes devoted exclusivelyto the topic of psychology.
  • James’s ideasbecame the basis of another early school ofpsychology, called functionalism, whichstressed studying the adaptive and practicalfunctions of human behavior.
sigmund freud psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis
  • In Vienna, Austria, a physician named Sigmund Freud was developing anintriguing theory of personality based on uncovering causes of behavior that wereunconscious, or hidden from the person’s conscious awareness.
  • Freud’s school ofpsychological thought, called psychoanalysis, emphasized the role of unconsciousconflicts in determining behavior and personality.Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality and behavior was based largelyon his work with his patients and on insights derived from self-analysis.
  • Freudbelieved that human behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts that werealmost always sexual or aggressive in nature. Past experiences, especially childhoodexperiences, were thought to be critical in the formation of adult personalityand behavior. According to Freud (1904), glimpses of these unconscious impulsesare revealed in everyday life in dreams, memory blocks, slips of the tongue, andspontaneous humor. Freud believed that when unconscious conflicts became extreme,psychological disorders could result.
john b watson behaviorism
John B. Watson: Behaviorism
  • Behaviorism contended that psychology should focus its scientific investigationsstrictly on overt behavior—observable behaviors that could be objectivelymeasured and verified.Behaviorism is yet another example of the influence of physiology onpsychology.
  • Ivan Pavlov demonstrated that dogs couldlearn to associate a neutral stimulus, such as the sound of a bell, with anautomatic behavior, such as reflexively salivating to food. Once an associationbetween the sound of the bell and the food was formed, the soundof the bell alone would trigger the salivation reflex in the dog. Pavlov enthusiasticallybelieved he had discovered the mechanism by which all behaviorswere learned.
  • In the United States, a young, dynamic psychologist named JohnB. Watson shared Pavlov’s enthusiasm. Watson (1913) championed behaviorismas a new school of psychology. Structuralism was still an influentialperspective, but Watson strongly objected to both its methodof introspection and its focus on conscious mental processes.
t he famous american psychologist b f skinner
Thefamous American psychologistB. F. Skinner
  • Like Watson, Skinnerbelieved that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardlyobservable behaviors that could be measured and verified. In compellingexperimental demonstrations, Skinner systematically used reinforcementor punishment to shape the behavior of rats and pigeons.
  • Between Watson and Skinner, behaviorism dominated American psychologyfor almost half a century. During that time, thestudy of conscious experiences was largely ignored as a topic in psychology.
humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology
  • Humanistic psychology was largely founded by American psychologist Rogers. Like Freud, Rogers was influenced by his experiences with psychotherapy clients.
  • However, rather than emphasizing unconscious conflicts, Rogers emphasized theconsciousexperiences of his patients, including each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
  • In contrast to the behaviorists, who saw human behavior as being shaped and maintained by external causes, Rogers emphasized self-determination, free will, and the importance of choice in human behaviour.
abraham maslow
Abraham Maslow
  • Maslowdeveloped a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth. Like psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology included notonly influential theories of personality but also a form of psychotherapy.
  • Each of the schools that we’ve described had an impact on the topics andmethods of psychological research.
  • From the founding of Wundt’s laboratory in 1879, psychology has evolved toits current status as a dynamic and multidimensional science.
  • The ideas of Carl Rogers have beenparticularly influential in modern psychotherapy.
  • Abraham Maslow’s theory ofmotivation emphasized the importance ofpsychological growth.
the s cientific m ethod
TheScientific Method
  • The four basic goals of psychology are to (1) describe, (2) explain, (3) predict,and (4) control or influence behavior and mental processes.
  • To achievethese goals, psychologists rely on the scientific method. The scientific methodrefers to a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchersin creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawingconclusions.
  • Like all scientists, psychologists are guided by the basic scientific assumptionthat events are lawful. When this scientificassumption is applied to psychology, it means that psychologists assume that behaviorand mental processes follow consistent patterns.
  • Psychologists are alsoguided by the assumption that events are explainable. Thus, psychologists assumethat behavior and mental processes have a cause or causes that can be understoodthrough careful, systematic study.
the s cientific m ethod1
TheScientific Method
  • In striving to discover and understand consistent patterns of behavior,psychologists are open-minded. They are willing to consider new or alternativeexplanations of behavior and mental processes.
  • However, their open-minded attitudeis tempered by a healthy sense of scientific skepticism. That is, psychologistscritically evaluate the evidence for new findings, especially those that seem contraryto established knowledge.
  • And, in promoting new ideas and findings, psychologistsare cautious in the claims they make.
general psychology studies
General psychology studies:
  • - structure of psychical activity of man and basic conformities to the law of motion of psychical processes (feeling and perception, memory, attention, thought and intellect, emotions and volitional activity, consciousness, selfconsciousness, subconscious and irresponsible processes).
  • - One of basic tasks of general psychology there is a study of personality, its structure and basic displays.
  • - In 19-20 age formed great number of separate branches of psychological science, what associate with other sciences, including and medical psychology.
general medical psychology studies
General medical psychology studies:
  • Basic conformities to the law of psychology of sick man;
  • Psychology of relatives and near patient;
  • Psychology of medical workers in relation to each other;
  • Psychological aspects of intercourse of physician are with patients and their relatives;
  • Psychological atmosphere in treatment - prophilaxy establishments;
  • Internal picture of illnesses, psychosomatic and somatopsyche mutual relations;
  • Influence of personality on motion of disease;
  • Psychological aspects of medical deontology;
  • Psychological aspects of psychotherapy, psychohygiene and psychoprophylaxy.
the special medical psychology studies
The special medical psychology studies:
  • Features of psychology of patients are with the boundary forms of nervous - psychiatric disorders which actually are the object of activity of doctor of any speciality;
  • Psychology of patients on the stages of preparation, conducting of surgical interferences and in a afteroperative period;
  • Features of psychology of persons are with different diseases (cardio-vascular, infectious, oncologic, gynaecological, leather, nerve - psychic);
  • Psychology of patients with the defects of organs and systems (blindness, deafness, deaf-and-dumb and etc.);
  • Medic-psychological aspect of labour, military and judicial examinations.
industries of psychology
Industries of psychology:
  • 1). Psychology of labour - studies the psychological features of labour activity of man, scientific organization of labour.
  • Tasks - research of professional features of man:
  • conformities to the law of development of skills of labours;
  • influence on the man of production situation, placing of machine-tools.
  • Psychology of labour has a row of sections:
  • engineering psychology is a problem of order and concordance of functions between people and machine;
  • aviation psychology, space psychology.
2). Pedagogical psychology: study of psychological conformities to the law of studies and education of man.

Its sections:

  • it is psychology of studies (bases of didactics, programmable studies, forming of mental actions).
  • psychology of education (psychology of education of student's collective).
3 medical psychology psychological aspects of activity of physicians patient
3). Medical psychology, psychological aspects of activity of physicians, patient:
  • neuropsychology: correlation of the psychological phenomena with physiology of cerebral structures;
  • psychopharmacy;
  • psychotherapy: facilities of the psychical influencing for treatment of a sick;
  • psychoprophylaxy and psychohygiene measures for providing of psychical health of people.
4 legal psychology is realization of right
4). Legal psychology is realization of right
  • judicial: psychological features of conduct of participants of criminal process;
  • psychology of testimonies, conduct of accused, requirements to the interrogation;
  • criminal: conduct and formings of personality of criminal, reasons of crime;
  • community-service psychology.
5). Military psychology.
  • 6). Sport psychology.
  • 7). Trade psychology (including influencing of advertising).
  • 8). Psychology of scientific creation.
  • 9). Psychology of artistic creation (in literature, art) and aesthetically beautiful perception.
10 if to take the psychological aspects of development for basis distinguish
10). If to take the psychological aspects of development for basis, distinguish:
  • age-old psychology: (child, psychology of teenager, adult, herontopsychology);
  • psychology of anomalous development;
  • olygophrenopsychology;
  • surdopsychology (defect of ear);
  • typhlopsychology (badseing and blind).

11) Comparative psychology is research of filogenic form of psychical life, comparison of psyche of animals and man;animal psychology.

12). Social psychology: mutual relations of people from the different organized and unorganized groups of communities:

  • makro environments;
  • mіkro environments.
methods of psychology
Methods of psychology

In psychology distinguish:

  • basic methods: supervision and experiment;
  • auxiliary: method of expert estimations, analysis of products of activity, methods of questioning (conversation, questionnaire, interview;
  • method of supervision;
  • method of tests etc.
1 supervision
1). Supervision:

Advantages - conducted in a natural ordinary situation

does not change behavior of persons;

  • it is possible to look after one person or group of persons;
  • very comfortable in the group of preschool or in a school class, student group;
  • supervision and fixing of single displays of psychical properties insufficient for reliable conclusions.
2). Experiment: laboratory and natural.

Advantages: - it is possible specially to cause a certain psychical process

it is possible to trace dependence of the psychical phenomenon on changeble external conditions.

3). Methods of questioning:

Method of conversation: use on the different stages of research both for a primary orientation and for clarification of conclusions, got with the help of other methods (supervision).

4). Method of interview. Questionnaire. Difference: The method of interview foresees greater freedom of polled in forming of answer.

5). Method of expert estimations: widely use personality psychology. As experts can come forward competent persons which know explored well: educators of preschool, schools-boarding-schools, leaders of classes, masters on a production, leaders of scientific collectives, sporting trainers and other

6). Method of introspection: widely used in empiric psychology of a 18-19 ages

7). Method of tests: tests, that the brief studies of properties of personality are more or less standardized

Are you able to own the emotions?

· Are you able to influence on other?

· Are you understood in Cosmetology?

· Are you able to get dressed? and etc

8). Concrete methods of psychological inspection: there are very much and depends on a purpose. For example, study of age-old changes of attention (to firmness), normal and morons children.

e xperimental method
Experimental method

The experimental method is a research method used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that isproduced on another variable.

Conducting an experiment involves deliberatelyvarying one factor, which is called the independent variable. The researcherthen measures the changes, if any, that are produced in a second factor, called thedependent variable. The dependent variable is so named because changes in itdepend on variations in the independent variable.

To the greatest degree possible, all other conditions in the experiment areheld constant. Thus, when the data are analyzed, any changes that occur in thedependent variable can be attributed to the deliberate variations of the independentvariable. In this way, an experiment can demonstrate a cause-and-effectrelationship between the independent and dependent variables.

sensation and perception
Sensation and perception
  • Sensation is a psychical process of reflection in our consciousness of separate properties of objects and phenomena of the objective world, which arise up at their direct influence on sense-organs.

– the most elementary stage, which reflects separate quality of subject, which is acting in right moment to sensory organs.

Classification :

According to modality:

Interoceptive – give signal about condition of our inner world: warm, cold, hunger, uncomfortability. These sensastions don’t have localisation, outside proection, closely connected with emotional processes.

Exteroceptive – 5 sensation organs: smell, taste, sight, hearing, tactile.

Proprioceptive – information about body position, movement in space, everything which makes body scheme.

1. Exteroreceptors (external).


  • a) an organ of sight - an eye;
  • b) an ear - is external and middle ears and frizz;
  • c) organ of smell - nose.

2. Contacts:

  • a) receptors of touch and pushing;
  • b) receptors of heat;
  • c) receptors of cold;
  • d) receptors of pain.

3. Interoreceprors (visceroreceptors).

Receptors of the digestive system:
  • a) receptors of smell is - nosethroat;
  • b) receptors of taste - are a tongue and throat;
  • c) sensory sells of thirst - mucus of throat;
  • d) sensory sells of hunger is - stomach;
  • e) sensory sells of nausea is - stomach.

Receptors of the system of circulation of blood

Receptors of the respiratory system.

Receptors of the system of reproduction.

Receptors of pain of all internal organs.

feeling properties
Feeling properties:
  • Absolute sensitiveness of sense-organs - to feel ability of man insignificant sizes of irritation.
  • A feeling threshold - is a minimum size of irritant, which feeling is appear (to the 16-20 hrz. for ear).
  • Adaptation - is a change of sensitiveness of analyzers as a result of adaptation of sense-organs to the operating irritant (light, warmly).
  • Sensibilisation - is an increase of sensitiveness as a result of co-operation (sound - light - disco).
  • Habituation - is getting used, when certain irritants become so usual, that stop to influence on activity of higher departments of brain (a townsman does not hear noise of cars, physicians - smell of medications

Perception is a psychical process which consists in the integral reflection of objects and phenomena of outward things under direct influence of physical irritants on the receptors of sense-organs (auditory, visual etc).

  • Integrity of perception - is an always integral reflection.
  • Selectivity - appears in the grant of advantage one objects, to the phenomena or their properties before other (the trained nurse pays attention to the signs of illness).
  • A constant of perception - is less-more relative firmness of separate properties of objects regardless of terms of perception (sun illumination and electric).
  • The intelligentness of perception - is linked with understanding essence of object which is perceived.
  • Apperception - is dependence on previous experience and its individual features and profession.
  • Supervision - the intentional planned perception, conditioned by a concrete task, is integrally directed.
Perceptions of colors and their influence are on the psyche of man
  • Grey- neutral - estrangement from surrounding
  • Green - calming - stability self-affirmation
  • Red - excitant - energeticness, unrestrainedness
  • Yellow - stimulant - life-breath
  • Dark blue - calming - rest and passivity
  • Black - repressing - fencing off, promoted self-esteem, on occasion testifies to depression
Perception depends on:
  • to the state of receptors
  • leading ways
  • cork (brain) end of analyzers
  • to consciousness
  • attention
  • emotions
  • vital experience
  • – Anesthesia – absence of 1 or more type of sensation. Analgesia – loss of pain sensation ( at acute psychopathological diseases.) Patients, who commit suicides: they cut their organs – at such moment they don’t feel anything. After some time everything comes back with recreation of psyche. ( At deep depression, progressive paralysis, brain syphillis, convulsive disorders(hysteria), anaestesia dolorosa depresia – absense of sensation).
  • Hyperesthesia – subjective increasing of sensation. Hyperalgesia – increasing of pain sensastion (depression,espessially light).
Violation of perception:
      • Illusions: error perception or error interpretation of the real external irritants (physical, physiology, psychical).
  • Hallucinations: error perception of non-existent sensory stimuli, here can take place (but not necessarily) delusional interpretation of the hallucinative experience. Hallucinations specify in the presence of psychosis only in that case, when they are connected with violation of real situation.
Illusions are perceptions that are associated with an outside stimulus, but the st imulus iswrongly interpreted. For example, lapping water may be heard as laughter. T echnically,these are not hallucinations, as they are associated with a stimulus. Illusions arefrequently visual, and they are usually the result of a medical condition. The conditionwhich most commonly causes illusions is delirium tremens (DTs), the disturbed statewhich can complicate alcohol withdrawal. Objec ts such as creases in bed covers may beperceived as snakes, insects or other animals. Folk law says that people in DTs see pinkelephants. In clinical practice, however, small organisms are more commonly “seen”.
hallucinations in healthy people
“Hallucinations” in healthy people
  • Briefly, there are differences between the voices heard by healthy individuals and thehallucinations of those with mental disorders. In healthy individuals, the voice is usuallyas if from one person, speaking comprehensibly, in a helpful and comforting manner.
  • Auditory hallucinations in mental disorders, in contrast, often involve more than onevoice, sometimes arguing, sometimes commenting about the patient, frequently makinglittle sense, often in a threatening and frightening manner.
Auditory or heard hallucinations are usually of v oices, however “non-verbal” auditory hallucinations do occur, and include clicking and mechanical noises, muttering or mumbling and music. (In musical hallucinations the patient often hears a complete piece of music.)
In the case of verbal auditory hallucinations, one or more voices may be heardsimultaneously.
  • They may come from inside or outside the head. Two or more voicesmay speak at the same time, or they may conduct a conversation between themselves .
Voices may instruct or command the patient to pe rform an act. Usually this is a trivial actsuch as making a cup of tea, but it may be to injure him/herself or others.
Visual hallucinations may occur in a range of disorders, and may occur more frequentlythan auditory hallucinations in the organic mental disorders. In some types of epilepsyvisual hallucinations may form complex scenes such as two trucks and a rickshaw drivingthrough the room.
Tactile hallucinations are the experience of being touched or of a crawling sensationunder the skin. These are common in drug withdrawal states, but may occur inschizophrenia.
  • Somatic hallucinations are the sensation of things happening inside the body, such asorgans moving from one part of the body to another. These are rare, but may occur inschizophrenia.
  • Gustatory hallucinations, the hallucinations of taste and smell , are more common inmedical conditions, particularly epilepsy, but may rarely occur in schizophrenia.
  • S-m Lippman, s-m Ashaphenburg, s-m Reyhardt.
anorexia nervosa an1
  • DSM-IV Diagnostic criteria
  • A. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height (e.g., weight loss leading to maintenance of a body weight less than 85% of that expected)
  • B. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
  • C. Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self -evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
  • D. In postmenarche females, amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles).
practical advices
Practical advices

1.In asthenic patients the thresholds of feelings are reduced. That is why it is necessary to create all proper terms in relation to warning of action of superstrong for a sick man irritants (noise, vowel language, strong smells, protracted visits of visitors and others like that).

2. At the care of patients it is needed to take into account the processes of adaptation, habituation and sensibilisation. SO, the process of adaptation to the stationary terms lasts mainly three-four days. Habituation lasted more characteristic for patients from rural locality, and sensibilisation - for the habitants of city.

3. At the care of patients and socializing with them it is necessary to take into account the sensitiveness of analyzers: more loud to speak to the persons with the reduced ear, to heed after operating of hot-water bottle on areas bodies, staggered paralyses or paresises, to darken a chamber, where patients which pupils were medicinal extended and others like that are.

4. It is needed to take into account influence of colors on the state of psyche of patient: green and blue - calm patients, and the red and orange excite the nervous system.

5. Illness strengthens selectivity of perception.