R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

maegan
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University

play fullscreen
1 / 34
Download Presentation
R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University
100 Views
Download Presentation

R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Is Sorghum a Fit for North Carolina R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University

  2. The Environment for Grain Sorghum • Increasing Market Opportunities and Potential • Growing Grain Sorghum in North Carolina • Advantages and Drawbacks to Grain Sorghum • 4. The Future for Grain Sorghum

  3. Opportunities in Grain Sorghum • Key Markets are: • Henderson – IAMS plant • Waverly, VA – Feed processing • Raeford, NC – Ethanol (Price per bushel except Sorghum price per cwt.) SRW Wheat 7.69 per bushel Yellow Corn 6.29 per bushel Yellow Sorghum 10.75 per cwt6.02 per bu Yellow Soybeans 13.65 per bushel

  4. Sorghum Production In North Carolina

  5. KEYS TO PROFIT • Sorghum requires careful management Hybrid Selection for Yield and Disease Resistance Planting Date Row Spacing and Seeding Rate Fertility Weed Control Insect and Disease Control

  6. KEY # 1: HYBRID SELECTION • Maturity – Disease Tolerance – Yield: These are the keys to a hybrid that produces high yield in North Carolina. Early - Medium Hybrids Late Hybrids Pioneer 86G08 65 Pioneer 85G46 69 DeKalb DK44 66 DeKalb DKS44-20 70 DeKalb/Asgrow A571 71 DeKalb DKS54-00 72 DeKalb/Asgrow A603 72 DeKalb DKS54-03 72 Pioneer 84G62 72 Pioneer 83G66 72 Pioneer 83G15 73 Pioneer 84G77 71

  7. 2008 State Trial Sorghum Hybrids for this Area Monsanto MSE 532 Pioneer 83G66 Pioneer 83G15 Pioneer 82G10 DeKalb DKS53-67 Pioneer 84G62 Monsanto MSE 536 Pioneer 85G46 NC+ NC+ 7B51 Pioneer 84G62 DeKalb DKS54-00 DeKalb /Asgrow A603 DeKalb DKS54-00 123.6 117.3 117.3 116.8 115.4 114.9 112.7 111.8 106.3 105.1 98.5 97.6 97.0

  8. Impact of Maturity and Planting Date

  9. KEY # 2: PLANTING DATE

  10. KEY # 3: ROW SPACING and POPULATION

  11. POPULATION: DOES IT MATTER?

  12. KEY # 4: WEED CONTROL • Start with Bicep or Harness for good early weed control • Quick Emergence and Early Growth • Combination of Atrazine and

  13. Postemergence Weed Control in Sorghum

  14. Postemergence Weed Control in Sorghum

  15. KEY # 5: FERTILITY MANAGEMENT • Current recommendations • 1.5-2 lb N/cwt = 0.84-1.12 lb N/bu • 25% @ plant • +40 lb if silage • Need Good P and K indexes: 60 or better • Crop requires 35 to 40 lbs of phosphorus • Crop requires 50 lbs of potassium

  16. N uptake by grain sorghum2/3 of N removed as grain60 bu crop total 75# N, grain has 50# N120 bu crop total 150 # N, grain has 100 # N Half bloom 5-leaf From: Vanderlip, 1979, Kansas State University

  17. a a a a a b c

  18. a ab ab ab bc bc c

  19. KEY # 6: INSECTS AND DISEASES • Ear worms and birds can cause severe damage • Maize Dwarf Mosaic and anthracnose can be severe with continuous sorghum or following corn • Maturity selection can impact disease and pest avoidance

  20. Corn Earworm Damage

  21. Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus Anthracnose Stalk Rot

  22. Disease Ratings for Anthracnose Table 1. Anthracnose ratings for sorghum hybrids grown in North Carolina. 1 = poor diseases resistance; 10 = excellent resistance. Maturity refers to the number of days to flowering or mid-bloom.

  23. KEY # 7: EARLY HARVEST • Harvest early - need to have facilities to dry grain • Early harvest avoids: • 1. lodging problems • 2. Grain deterioration • 3. Late tillering that interferes with harvest

  24. Advantages to Sorghum Lower Input Costs Sustainable Returns in Low Yield Environments Better Nutrient Utilization than Corn - Highly Compatible with Swine or Poultry waste applications Excellent Rotation Crop for Cotton or Soybean More Residue Produced Compared to Corn Chemical Weed Control Alternatives for Roundup Resistant Weeds When Harvest Occurs on Time Less Mycotoxins in Grain

  25. Drawbacks to Sorghum Fewer Available Markets Does not have the High Yield Potential of Corn in Better Environments Crop Failure and/or Low Yield can Occur with Little Moisture During Heading Few Options for Post-Emergence Grass Control Anthracnose and Earworms are Critical Threats Less Production Information on Fungicides

  26. The Future of Sorghum Production In North Carolina

  27. What Will it Take to Expand Acres? • Markets that Desire Sorghum • Ethanol – less mycotoxins, marginal land utilization • Feed Grains – Change in Milling Practices • Future Human Food Products?? • Severe Cost Increases in N, P, and K or Lack of Availability • Ideal Crop for Biomass or Carbon Sequestration

  28. Advantages of Sweet Sorghum • Multi-Dimensional Energy Crop – 30 mt per hectare yield • 3 to 4 tons of ethanol from sucrose • 9 to 12 tons of cellulosic ethanol • 6000 cubic meters of methane • Potential for 3 times more energy per hectare than corn and stover and 1.5 times more energy than switchgrass • Ideally suited for marginal soils in the southeastern US – can be grown with modest amount of nutrients • 4. Production systems and hybrids already available

  29. New Sweet Sorghum Hybrids New Hybrid – TAMU x HO8001 Older Hybrid – 22053

  30. New Sweet Sorghum Hybrids New Hybrid – TAMU x HO8001 Common Hybrid – M81-E Older Hybrid – 22053

  31. Productivity in North Carolina

  32. Questions?