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Chapter 44. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PowerPoint® presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson. Learning Outcomes. 44-1 Define CAM. 44-2 Compare complementary and alternative medicine to conventional medicine.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Chapter 44

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

PowerPoint® presentation to accompany:

Medical Assisting

Third Edition

Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson

learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

44-1 Define CAM.

44-2 Compare complementary and alternative medicine to conventional medicine.

44-3 Discuss how CAM and conventional medicine are used together.

44-4 Identify various types of complementary and alternative medicine.

learning outcomes cont
Learning Outcomes (cont.)

44-5 Describe how a medical assistant may use his or her knowledge of CAM.

44-6 Explain why patients and health-care practitioners are turning to complementary treatments.

44-7 Discuss insurance and payment for CAM treatments.

44-8 Explain how CAM is regulated.

44-9 Describe health fraud.

introduction
Introduction
  • More than 30% of adults use complementary and alternative therapies
    • Relieve problems
    • Promote wellness
    • No relief from traditional treatments
  • Some physicians use a combination of CAM and traditional therapies
what is cam
What Is CAM?
  • A group of practices and products that are not part of conventional medicine
  • Allopathy – conventional medicine or common and usual practice
  • Complementary medicine – used with conventional medicine
  • Alternative medicine – used instead of conventional medicine
what is cam cont
What Is CAM? (cont.)
  • Scientific evidence concerning safety and effectiveness
    • Available for some CAM therapies
    • Research continues so information changes
  • Integrative medicine
    • Evolves as CAM therapies are adopted by conventional medicine
    • Combination of both
apply your knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge

Define CAM and state why these therapies are not in wide use by practitioners of conventional medicine.

ANSWER: CAM is a group of practices and products not considered part of conventional medicine. They are not widely used by physicians because there is not a lot of scientific evidence of their safety and effectiveness.

Impressive!

types of cam
Shared similarities

Individualized treatments, good nutrition, and preventative health practices

Holistic

Promote self-care and self-healing

Recognition of one’s spiritual nature

Categories

Alternative medical systems

Mind-body interventions

Biologically-based therapies

Manipulative and body-based methods

Energy therapies

Types of CAM
types of cam alternative medical systems
Types of CAM: Alternative Medical Systems
  • Evolved apart from conventional medicine
  • Homeopathic medicine
    • Treating syndromes and conditions with remedies that produce similar syndromes and conditions in healthy people
    • Remedy
      • Produces the symptoms it is given to treat in order to stimulate the body’s natural defenses to heal itself
      • Must meet FDA standards
types of cam alternative medical systems cont
Types of CAM: Alternative Medical Systems (cont.)
  • Homeopathic medicine
    • Looks at individuals, not diseases
      • Initial in-depth assessment
      • Follow-up – how they are responding
    • Medical assistant role
      • Similar to other medical offices
      • Have knowledge of common remedies
types of cam alternative medical systems cont11
Types of CAM: Alternative Medical Systems (cont.)
  • Naturopathic medicine
    • Relies on the healing power of the body to establish, maintain, and restore health
    • Primary health care
      • Nutritional / lifestyle counseling
      • Dietary supplements / medicinal plants
      • Exercise
      • Homeopathy / traditional Chinese medicine
types of cam alternative medical systems cont12
Types of CAM: Alternative Medical Systems (cont.)
  • Naturopathic medicine
    • Medical assistant – understanding of treatments
    • Traditional Chinese medicine
      • Balanced qi(vital energy)
      • Flow of qi along meridians (energetic pathways)
      • Acupuncture – insertion of hollow needles along meridians
      • Ayurveda – provides guidance regarding food and lifestyle; India
types of cam mind body interventions
Types of CAM: Mind-Body Interventions
  • Enhance the mind’s capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms
  • Support groups and cognitive-behavioral therapy now part of traditional medicine
  • Scientific support
    • Placebo effect – WW II
    • 35% of therapeutic response is due to belief
types of cam mind body interventions cont
Types of CAM: Mind-Body Interventions (cont.)
  • Most commonly used forms of CAM
  • Types
    • Prayer
    • Yoga
    • Meditation
    • Hypnosis
    • Biofeedback
types of cam biologically based therapies
Types of CAM: Biologically-Based Therapies
  • Use substances found in nature
    • Dietary supplements
    • Herbal products
    • Foods
  • Medical assistant
    • Keep up-to-date about dietary and herbal products
    • Be able to provide reliable resources for patients
types of cam biologically based therapies cont
Recommended daily amount established by the FDATypes of CAM: Biologically-Based Therapies (cont.)
  • Dietary supplements
    • Manufacturers –> no evidence of effectiveness or safety
    • No standardization to ensure consistency and quality
    • Types
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
      • Herbals – no established recommended daily amount
types of cam biologically based therapies cont17
Types of CAM: Biologically-Based Therapies (cont.)
  • Patient education for using supplements
    • Report all supplements as they would prescription medications
    • Take supplement bottles to appointments
  • Document patient’s use of supplements in the medical record
types of cam manipulative and body based methods
Based on the manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body

Types

Massage therapy

Chiropractic manipulation

Reflexology

Alexander technique

Bowen technique

Craniosacral therapy

Feldenkrais method

Rolfing

Trager bodywork

Tui Na

Types of CAM: Manipulative and Body-Based Methods
types of cam manipulative and body based methods cont
Massage

Pressure, kneading, stroking, vibration, and tapping to positively affect health

Effects

Relaxation

Counteracts effects of stress

Lowers heart rate and blood pressure

Reduces pain / relaxes muscle spasms

Improves concentration

Promotes restful sleep

Helps the mind relax

Types of CAM: Manipulative and Body-Based Methods (cont.)
types of cam manipulative and body based methods cont20
Swedish massage

Stimulates circulation and lymph flow

5 basic strokes

Neuromuscular massage

Release tension, relieves pain and pressure on nerves, and increases blood flow

Trigger point therapy

Seated massage

Focuses on back and neck

Types of CAM: Manipulative and Body-Based Methods (cont.)
types of cam manipulative and body based methods cont21
Chiropractic medicine

Adjustments

Manual treatments to re-align the vertebra and restore function of spinal nerves

Chiropractor

Performs an exam and takes a history

Tests

X-rays

Muscle testing

Analyzes posture

Types of CAM: Manipulative and Body-Based Methods (cont.)
types of cam energy therapies
Types of CAM: Energy Therapies
  • Bioeletromagnetic-based therapies
    • Balances the electromagnetic fields of the body
    • No scientific evidence of efficacy
    • Magnetic therapy
      • Most common type
      • Magnets are used to correct disturbances of electromagnetic fields and restore health
      • FDA – no medical value but relatively harmless
      • Avoid for patients with pacemaker or defibrillator
types of cam energy therapies23
Biofield therapies

Manipulate energy field surrounding the body

Reiki

Based on qi

Visualization and touchbalance energy flow to bring healing energyto organs and glands

Therapeutic touch

“Laying-on of hands”

Hands direct human energies to help or heal

No scientific evidence of efficacy

Types of CAM: Energy Therapies
apply your knowledge24
ANSWER:

A

Apply Your Knowledge

Match to types of CAM:

___ Therapeutic touch A. Energy therapies

___ Chiropractic medicine B. Mind-body therapies

___ Dietary supplements C. Body-based therapies

___ Yoga and meditation D. Biologically-based therapies

___ TCM E. Alternative medical systems

___ Herbal supplements

___ Homeopathy / naturopathy

___ Magnetic therapy

___ Hypnosis

___ Massage

C

D

B

E

D

E

Excellent!

A

B

C

patients seeking cam therapy
Use is increasing

Less expensive

Have fewer side effects

More accessible

Increase in spirituality

Personal growth

Environmentalism

Preventive health care

Reasons for seeking CAM therapy

Failure of traditional medical interventions

Treat side effects of conventional medicine’s treatments

Patients Seeking CAM Therapy
patients seeking cam therapy cont
Patients Seeking CAM Therapy (cont.)
  • Patients with chronic debilitating conditions
    • Improve quality of life
    • Improve ability to cope with stress and illness
  • Cultural differences in CAM use
    • Hispanics
    • Native Americans
  • Accept patient’s right to choose CAM therapy
apply your knowledge27
Apply Your Knowledge

Mr. State is complaining about chronic back pain. He says that the medication only helps a little and asks you if there is anything else you could recommend that will help him. What should you tell him?

ANSWER: If your employer is not averse to CAM therapies, you can tell him that there are CAM therapies that may help with the pain or at least help him cope better with it. He could try mind-body techniques, acupuncture, manipulative and body-based techniques, or energy therapies.

Super job!

insurance and cam
Insurance and CAM
  • Coverage varies
    • Lack of research and documentation of efficacy
    • Emphasis on physiological or biochemical response to therapies
  • Alternative health insurance companies emerging in response to need
insurance and cam cont
Insurance and CAM (cont.)
  • Medical assistant
    • Know whether or not CAM treatments are covered by insurance
    • Resources
      • Insurance companies
      • State agency that regulates the insurance industry
regulation of cam therapies
Regulation of CAM Therapies
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
    • Research
    • Training and career development
    • Conferences and educational programs
    • Integration of scientifically proven CAM therapies into conventional medicine
regulation of cam therapies cont
Regulation of CAM Therapies (cont.)
  • White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy (WHCCAMP)
    • Funding for research
    • Communication between CAM and conventional practitioners
    • Availability of CAM practitioners
    • State review and evaluation of CAM practitioners
    • Insurance coverage options
apply your knowledge32
Apply Your Knowledge
  • Why do insurance companies not reimburse for most CAM therapies?

ANSWER: Insurance companies do not reimburse for CAM therapies because of the lack of research and documentation of effectiveness of these therapies.

  • What are the federal agencies tasked with regulation of CAM therapies?

ANSWER: They are the NCCAM and WHCCAMP.

Yippee! 2 for 2!

health fraud
Health Fraud
  • Articles of unproven effectiveness promoted to improve health, well-being, or appearance
    • Deception or trickery for profit
    • Plays on emotions and desperation
  • Regulation
    • FDA – safety, manufacturing, and labeling
    • FTC – advertising
health fraud cont
Health Fraud (cont.)
  • Health claims
    • Unproven claims must include a disclaimer
    • FDA-approved claims for food and supplements
      • Based on scientific evidence
      • Only reduces risk / does not treat or cure
health fraud cont37
Health Fraud (cont.)
  • Recognizing health fraud
    • Check with the BBB or attorney general’s office
    • Check with appropriate health-care group
    • Contact the FDA
    • If it sounds to good to be true, it probably is not true
    • If unproven, get a second opinion
    • Be aware of “secret cures”
apply your knowledge38
Apply Your Knowledge

Why do people fall victim to fraudulent health claims?

ANSWER: These claims target people who are emotional and desperate. They are hoping to find a cure, improve their health, or just look better.

Bravo!

in summary
CAM is therapy outside conventional medicine

Complementary medicine is used with conventional medicine

Alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine

5 classifications

Medical assistant must understand

CAM therapies

Insurance reimbursement

Health fraud

In Summary
slide40
End of Chapter 44

There is a magnet in your heart that will attract true friends. That magnet is unselfishness, thinking of others first; when you learn to live for others, they will live for you.

~ Paramahansa Yogananda

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