The roaring twenties
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The Roaring Twenties. 1921 Election. MacKenzie King – leader of Liberal party Believed in the middle path Arthur Meighen – leader of the Conservatives Believed in principles over compromise; didn ’ t care if he offended anyone

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1921 election
1921 Election

  • MacKenzie King – leader of Liberal party

    • Believed in the middle path

  • Arthur Meighen – leader of the Conservatives

    • Believed in principles over compromise; didn’t care if he offended anyone

  • Liberals elected 117 seats; Conservatives 55 seats; Progressives 64 seats

Mackenzie King


Economic boom
Economic Boom

  • Canada’s economy was struggling as it entered the 1920’s, but soon began to rise

  • During the 1920’s the US started investing in Canada’s economy.

    Ex. US Companies set up ‘branch plants’ such as auto plants, which operated here but were controlled by American business men (so that they didn’t have to pay tariffs to ship cars to Canada)

  • US enriched Canada’s economy by extracting or harvesting raw materials (primary resources)

    • Materials were transported to US for processing and manufacturing (secondary resources)

Economic boom cont
Economic Boom (cont.)

  • With the increase in employment and economic prosperity few Canadians questioned the long term effects of American involvement.

PM King & US President Roosevelt

Bootlegging across the border
Bootlegging Across the Border

  • The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) pushed prohibition into legislation in Canada and the US.

    • Prohibition: the sale, manufacture, and transportation (bootlegging) of alcohol was illegal.

  • Eventually, after plebiscites (votes on a public issue) Canada adopted liquor outlets that the government controlled. By1921, many provinces had regulations instead of banning product

  • The US, however, enforced it until 1933. Canadians sold illegal alcohol over the border for about 10 years. This was known as “Rum-running”.

The twenties woman
The Twenties’ Woman

  • After the tumult of World War I, a "new breed" of young women came about:

  • Short skirts, bobbed their hair

  • Disliked “acceptable behavior”

  • women were becoming more independent and achieving greater freedoms (the right to vote, greater employment)

Chicago 1926

The flapper
The “Flapper”

  • a "new breed" of young woman came about: the Flapper.

  • A Flapper was anemancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes.

  • Short skirts, bobbed their hair

  • Disliked “acceptable behavior”

New roles for women
New Roles for Women

Early 20th Century teachers

  • The fast-changing world of the 1920s produced new roles for women. Many women entered the workplace as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries. However, women earned less than men and were kept out of many traditional male jobs (e.g., management) and faced discrimination.

  • Agnes Macphailbegan her career as a country schoolteacher. Interested in agricultural problems, she became a member and active spokesperson for the United Farmers of Ontario.

  • 1921 - was the first woman to be elected to the Canadian House of Commons, and one of the first two women elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.

  • 1929 - she became the first Canadian woman to be sent as a delegate to the League of Nations in Geneva, where she was an active member of the World Disarmament Committee.

The persons case 1929
The Persons Case 1929

  • Emily Murphy appointed as magistrate in Alberta

  • This was challenged on the basis that only “persons” could hold office under the BNA Act – women were not “persons” under the law

  • “Famous Five” fought to have PM Mackenzie King appoint a female senator

The persons case 19291
The Persons Case 1929

  • 1928 – Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not “persons”

  • “Famous Five” appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (Britain)

  • October 18, 1929 – JCPC declares support for the women:

    • The exclusion of women from all public offices is a relic of days more barbaric than ours... To those who ask why the word [“person”] should include females the obvious answer is why should it not? (p.60)

Growth of regionalism
Growth of Regionalism

  • Regionalism: concern of various different regions of the country with their own local problems

  • Maritimes population is a small region, therefore they had fewer seats in parliament

  • Oil replaced coal, yet Maritimes had coal as their focus industry –> so, economy slows down

  • They want the federal gov’t to help

  • Maritimes Rights Movement formed

Regionalism cont
Regionalism (cont.)

There were also regional challenges from Prairies and Ontario

Farmers angered by National Policy because of tariffs/duties placed on foreign goods imported into Canada(this policy benefits manufacturers, not farmers)

Foreign goods become too expensive for Canadians, so they have to domestic goods. As a result, farmers can’t get cheap machinery from America.

They protest: Farmers wanted free trade, abolish tariffs and allow them to buy cheap machinery from U.S.

They also wanted more representation at the federal level, and were displeased at the lack of control over their own products

1919 federal Thomas Crerar created the Progessive Party

Wanted a new National Party based on free trade and ownership of railways

Thomas Crerar