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Cell based energy density aware routing: a new protocol for improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Jae Young Choi*, Hyung Seok Kim1, Iljoo Baek, Wook Hyun Kwon

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Cell based energy density aware routing: a new protocol for improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks

Jae Young Choi*, Hyung Seok Kim1, Iljoo Baek, Wook Hyun Kwon

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National

University, San 56-1, Shilimdong, Kwanakgu, Seoul 151-744, South Korea

COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS 2005

The International Journal for the Computer and Telecommunications Industry

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Addressing and service model
  • Cell based energy density aware routing algorithm
  • Evaluation
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction
  • Wireless sensor networks
    • Batteries can not be recharged
  • Mobile ad-hoc networks
    • Rechargeable and replaceable batteries
problem
Problem
  • Multiple paths are used
    • Nodes at the points of overlap among the paths will more quickly run out of energy
  • Battery failure
    • Topological changes
    • Partitioning of the network
    • Void subarea
slide5
Goal
  • Cell based energy density aware routing
    • Forwards packets to the neighbor cell with the greatest residual energy density
      • Energy density is defined as the weighted sum

of the energies of all nodes in the cell

    • To monitor all subareas for longer periods of time
addressing model
Addressing Model

L=1

G=8

One hop

1.an address (x, y, n)

n is the local address

assigned to nodes in the cell

2.Let L denote the proximity

level of the cells

addressing model1
Addressing Model

the unit horizontal length of a cell

the unit perpendicular

length of a cell

Ux

(1,2,1)

2

3

1

1.Prevents multiple sources

with the same address from

sending redundant data

a

Uy

1

rmax:Maximum distance that node can transmit a packet

(1,2,1)

2

(1,2,2)

L=1, rmax larger than (a, b)

b

L=2, rmax larger than (a, c)

3

c

rmax=20m ,L=1, Ux=5m ,Uy=5m

Ux=8m ,Uy=7m

addressing model2
Addressing Model
  • The node with the highest energy level is selected as the router node
    • comparing the residual energy levels of all nodes in the cell
addressing model3
Addressing Model
  • The residual energy of each node is expressed by a small number of energy levels
    • Whenever the energy level of a particular node changes
    • The node advertises its new level to the other nodes in its cell and they update their energy tables

energy table (cell (x, y), local id, energy level)

addressing model4
Addressing Model
  • The router node always has a node id of 1 (i.e. (x, y, 1))
    • If the router node changes its energy level, it

can be replaced with another node having more

residual energy

    • The new and old router nodes swap node id

values such

    • New router node has the address (x, y, 1)
service model
Service model
  • We assume that moveable sinks move slowly
    • The communication overhead associated

with searching for the moving sink is

negligible

    • When a moving sink changes its position to another cell, it will send a new query for routing
service model1
Service model
  • The sink sends a query including

attributes to obtain information from

the sensor nodes

The query generator loc is the location of the

sink sending the query

cell based energy density aware routing algorithm
Cell based energy density aware routing algorithm
  • Two phase
  • Route discovery phase

Router node receives the packet

broadcasts it to the other router nodes

stores a list of available neighbor cells (ANC)

Step 1

Sink Sends a query packet

sink

Router Node

cell based energy density aware routing algorithm1
Cell based energy density aware routing algorithm

Step 2

sink

x

One hop

Destination node

Router Node

cell based energy density aware routing algorithm2
Cell based energy density aware routing algorithm

If not, selects from among its neighbor cells

The cell a has destination cell b in the

forwarding table

Step 3

sink

a

x

b

Destination node

Router Node

route discovery phase
Route discovery phase
  • Step 4

x

Available cell

x

Cell D

WE(j,m) is a weight factor for different energy levels

slide19
If the energy densities of all neighbor cells are the same
    • The forwarding cell is chosen as the cell for which the distances are smallest
    • Weight factor:
route discovery phase1
Route discovery phase
  • Step 5
    • After the packet is forwarded to the node

selected in Step 3

    • The process returns to Step 1 and is

repeated until the packet arrives at the

destination

reconstruction phase
Reconstruction phase
  • Step 1
    • Whenever a node changes its energy level

during communication

    • The node advertises its new energy level to

its neighbor cells and the nodes in its cell

slide22
Step 2
    • If metric M(i, j) satisfies the condition
    • M(i, j) is the metric of the established link li,j
    • Link li,j continues to be used as a forwarding link
    • If is not satisfied, the cell minimizing metric

should be chosen to forward the packet

slide23
Step 3
    • If the intermediate cell i receiving the

packet has no node in the forwarding table

evaluation
Evaluation
  • 200 randomly distributed acoustic sensor nodes
  • Two sinks in an area of 100 m x 100 m
  • Send a data packet every 5 s
  • The MAC algorithm was based on IEEE 802.11
  • Five energy levels (i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • This paper has described a new energy-

aware routing protocol

    • cell based energy density aware routing (CEDA)
  • It uses energy density as a routing

metric and finds forwarding paths using

information on geographic locations