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Producers & Audiences. Producers & Audiences. Key Texts: Avatar – dir. James Cameron (2009) Notting Hill – dir. Roger Michell (1999) Let The Right One In – dir. Tomas Alfredson (2008) Twilight: New Moon – dir. Chris Weitz (2009) Let Me In – dir. Matt Reeves (2010).

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producers audiences
Producers & Audiences
  • Key Texts:
    • Avatar – dir. James Cameron (2009)
    • Notting Hill – dir. Roger Michell (1999)
    • Let The Right One In – dir. Tomas Alfredson (2008)
    • Twilight: New Moon – dir. Chris Weitz (2009)
    • Let Me In – dir. Matt Reeves (2010)
producers audiences1
Producers & Audiences

You will study 3 main areas within this section:

  • The Film Industry
    • Finance, organisation, production, distribution (including marketing) and exhibition
  • The Film Audience
    • film demand and supply, specifically in the UK today
    • the consumption of film, including cinema-going and the importance of home cinema and the internet,
    • the significance of digital technologies in delivering different kinds of film experience.
  • The Relationship between Producers & Audiences
    • institutional frameworks within which UK & US filmmakers operate
    • the importance of stars in the success of a film
the film industry
The Film Industry
  • What are the major stages of production involved in making a new film, in order?
    • Concept
    • Scripting
    • Fund-raising
    • Assigning producers & director
    • Script meetings
    • Casting
    • Filming
    • Editing
    • Marketing
    • Post-Editing (e.g. visual effects)
    • More marketing
    • Finishing (film made ready to exhibit)
    • Distribution to exhibitors (i.e. Cinemas)
    • Exhibition by cinemas (i.e. showing it: first to reviewers, then to paying customers)
the film industry step one finance
The Film Industry – Step One: Finance

Some recent movie budgets:

  • How are films financed?





how are films financed
How are films financed?
  • Self-Financing (El Mariachi cost Robert Rodriguez $7000 to make – gross rev. $2m)
  • State/National Funding (UK Film Council issues grants to filmmakers; some US states offer Tax incentives to filmmakers to film in their state)
  • Corporate Sponsorship (for example through product placement)
  • Production Companies (like Hammer Films) – some of these are household names, others are set up purely to finance one film
  • Movie Studios (Universal, Paramount, etc.) – these are extremely rich and can offer millions of dollars to films they think likely to succeed

Research our key texts – how was each one funded?

the film industry organisation
The Film Industry – Organisation
  • In 2009, 6 US conglomerates earned the following revenues:
  • CBS – $13bn
  • Viacom – $13.6bn
  • TimeWarner – $25.8bn
  • Newscorp – $30.4bn
  • WaltDisney – $36.1bn
  • GeneralElectric – $157bn

Find out how each of these companies (or their

subsidiaries) were involved in the making of our key films

“Seven companies controlled the release of the top 20 films in 2007, which made up 44 percent of annual box office revenue as of December 15.”



the film industry movie studios
The Film Industry – Movie Studios
  • These have been around since the early 1900s
  • In their modern set-up, they part- or wholly fund films in return for the profits made
    • Research the gross revenue for our key films: how many different companies are profits shared between?
  • Movie studios have a lot of power to tell directors how to make their films; studio decisions are often led by what will be most profitable, not artistic merits
    • Research our key films: can you find any instances of directors being curtailed, or re-releasing ‘directors cuts’ after the main film’s release?
the film industry production
The Film Industry – Production
  • This includes everything from set-building to filming, editing to post-editing
  • It will be covered individually as we cover each film-pairing.
the film industry distribution
The Film Industry – Distribution
  • Distribution refers to the film

companies renting the film to cinemas

    • Often this refers to the loan of stocks of film, though increasingly more and more films are distributed digitally to exhibitors. Advantages?
  • The right to distribute is usually sold to a major media company, hence a film made by Working Title might be distributed internationally by Universal.
    • What are the benefits to this approach? Who loses out?
    • Research our key films: who distributed them in the UK and in the US?
the film industry exhibition
The Film Industry – Exhibition
  • Exhibition refers to what the cinemas do.
  • Exhibitors rent the film stock (or download rights)
  • Exhibitors get a ‘sliding percentage’ of ticket sales, negotiated by the distributor
    • For the last Star Wars movie, the studio claimed 100% of ticket sales for the first week, 90% for the second, etc...
    • big movies like Harry Potter usually get 80%-95% for the first week or two, then decline through the percentiles as long as the movie is still showing
  • A film will typically be in cinemas for 3 weeks, though ‘holdover clauses’ in the exhibition contract may require the exhibitor to keep showing the film so long as it continues to surpass pre-agreed ticket sales figures.
  • Research all of the questions in red as they relate to our key films. The following sites may prove useful as a starting point: