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Social Democratic Regimes (Sweden). Dominant Social Democratic parties Centralized states Corporatist interest groups Universal, generous, service-intensive welfare states that promote equality. Conservative Regimes (U.S.). Weak, non-existent working class parties Pluralist interest groups

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Social democratic regimes sweden
Social Democratic Regimes (Sweden)

  • Dominant Social Democratic parties

  • Centralized states

  • Corporatist interest groups

  • Universal, generous, service-intensive welfare states that promote equality

Conservative regimes u s
Conservative Regimes (U.S.)

  • Weak, non-existent working class parties

  • Pluralist interest groups

  • Relatively small state sectors

  • Welfare programs

    • fewer programs, cover fewer people, offer less generous benefits

Christian democratic regimes germany
Christian Democratic Regimes (Germany)

  • Religious and class divisions (competitive Social/Christian Democratic parties)

  • Corporatist interest groups

  • High welfare spending along occupational lines, which mitigates but reinforces inequalities

Sweden politics
Sweden: Politics

  • Long history of Social Democratic Party (SAP) success; high union membership

  • Working class positioned to promote interests

  • First in “Lower-class power” among advanced capitalist democracies

  • Reformist agenda

  • Not socialize production, socialize distribution

  • Form broad coalitions

Sweden policies
Sweden: Policies

  • Democratic Socialist Party (SAP) success

    • generous, universal, service-oriented welfare state displaces market principles (health and child care) and replaces market incomes (pensions, sick pay, unemployment)

  • Capitalist system

    • Full employment

    • Centralized wage bargaining

    • Wage solidarity

Sweden institutions
Sweden: Institutions

  • Consensual democracy

    • Power sharing (coalition) governments

    • Inclusive policy-making process

    • Proportional representation (PR) electoral system

  • Parliamentary democracy

    • Unicameral legislature

      • Riksdag(post-1971): 349 members; low voter-member ratio (1/25,000); multimember districts

  • Head of state (ceremonial), King; head of government (real power), PM and cabinet

  • Executive branch dominant in policy

  • Unitary system

United states politics
United States: Politics

  • Weakest lower-class in all advanced capitalist democracies

  • 1930s New Deal coalition

  • Rise of Republicans

    • South defects over civil rights

    • Business community rolls-back government regulations

    • Christian right organizes on moral issues

    • Conservative white males threatened by dismantling of racial and gender hierarchies

  • Democratic base=black, low-income, female, liberal, unmarried voters

  • Republican base=white male, conservative, Southern, high-income voters

United states policies
United States: Policies

  • Class matters little in how people vote and a lot in who votes

  • Gap in participation and power reflected in policy

    • Extreme market capitalism

      • Businesses enjoy more autonomy

    • Small public sector; markets rule

  • Results of extreme market capitalism mixed

    • Competitive, prosperous economy

    • High levels of income/wealth inequality and poverty

United states institutions
United States: Institutions

  • Fragmented - Federalism, separation of powers (checks and balances)

  • President

  • Congress

    • House – 435 members, district elections, two-year terms; white, male, wealthy; high incumbency rates (>90%)

    • Senate – 100 members, returned by states, six-year terms; wealthier, even less diverse, representative; more competitive elections (around 75%)

  • Courts

  • Policymaking process = Veto-points (places where policy can fail)

    • Maintain status quo, obstacles in way of disadvantaged who depend on public policies to offset lack of market power

Germany politics
Germany: Politics

  • Unification (1870s); rapid industrialization

  • Defeat in WWI, Weimar Republic, first democracy

  • Occupation produced German Democratic Republic (East Germany, Soviet-controlled) and Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)

    • GDR: one-party state dictatorship

    • Reunification in 1990 (with end of Cold War)

  • West Germany Post-WWII politics marked by class and religious cleavages

    • Christian Democratic Union (CDU) (broad support)

    • Social Democratic Party (SPD) (industrial workers)

    • Ongoing competition for governance between these parties in coalition with others

Germany policies
Germany: Policies

  • Post-WWII revival under CDU remarkable

  • State intent on letting markets rule, only “as much state intervention as necessary”

  • Social market economy

    • Markets allocate resources; state makes sure it does so in socially responsible way

    • German Model faltered in 1980s

      • Growth, jobs declined

      • Consensus, patience, coordination, incremental change regarded as source of poor performance

      • Labor market increasingly divided between insiders and outsiders

Germany institutions
Germany: Institutions

  • Federal

  • Significant authority to EU

  • Federal Constitutional Court

  • Powerful, encompassing interest groups

  • Bicameralism

  • President (ceremonial), selects party leader to form government

  • Head of government is chancellor (majority in lower house)

  • Stable political and party system, consensual decision-making, incremental policy changes