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Blacks, Whites and New South. Richard Jensen Sumter 2008. Blacks as 2 nd Class Citizens. Loss of Political Power Segregation Poor services (schools) Sharecroppers Some Farm Owners Leaders: ministers & teachers. After Reconstruction. 1872: “Liberal Republicans” revolt

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blacks whites and new south

Blacks, Whites and New South

Richard Jensen

Sumter 2008

blacks as 2 nd class citizens
Blacks as 2nd Class Citizens
  • Loss of Political Power
  • Segregation
  • Poor services (schools)
  • Sharecroppers
  • Some Farm Owners
  • Leaders: ministers & teachers
after reconstruction
After Reconstruction
  • 1872: “Liberal Republicans” revolt
  • Populist revolt of poor white farmers fails (1890-96)
  • PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896) Segregation ok’d by Supreme Court Disfranchisement (1890s)
  • Lynchings & racial violence (1890-1920)
  • NAACP formed (1906)
geography 1
Geography- 1
  • RURAL South
  • “black belt”
  • Cotton
  • Also tobacco
south carolina today
South Carolina today
  • Only 900 cotton farms left in the state
  • 2006 2 million jobs in SC:
    • Factories: 260,000 (including 28,000 in textile mills)
    • Construction: 123,000
    • Stores 370,000
    • Education & health: 290,000
    • Tourism 205,000
    • Government 334,000
    • Unemplyed 140,000
    • recent Statistics
conditions in 1900
Conditions in 1900
  • Most blacks in rural South
    • Segregation
    • Jim Crow
    • Most in poverty, but making gains
    • Education: little
    • Voting: no in deep South; yes in North; yes in border states
    • Lynchings and threats
blacks as 2 nd class citizens1
Blacks as 2nd Class Citizens
  • Loss of Political Power
  • Segregation
  • Poor services (schools)
  • Sharecroppers
  • Some Farm Owners
  • Leaders: ministers & teachers
terminology contested
Terminology: contested
  • Colored (19c)
    • people of color (1980- )
  • Negro (1910-1960)
  • “niggra” (polite South before 1960)
  • Black (1960- )
  • African-American (1980- )
  • N-Word (very nasty term)
south 1865 1940 parallel social structure
White South

upper class

middle class

Farm owner

working class

tenants/ croppers

Black South

upper class

middle class

Farm owner

working class

tenants/ croppers

underclass

South, 1865-1940: Parallel Social Structure
religious structure
Religious Structure
  • Very high religiosity
  • 65% Baptist, 20% Methodist
    • Also Catholic, Fundamentalist, Muslim
  • own [segregated] churches
  • dominant ministers
    • Adam Clayton Powell (1950s)
    • M L King (1960s)
  • Blacks as Christlike victims
    • Must redeem whites from racism
segregation era 1880 1964
Segregation Era 1880-1964
  • Exclusion from power & prestige
  • Segregation: De Facto & De Jure
    • Supreme Court approves: Plessy v Ferguson, 1896
    • schools, churches, jobs
    • GEOGRAPHICAL: “BLACK BELT” IN So, cities
  • Politics: Age of White Supremacy
    • Disfranchisement, 1890-1915
    • Lynchings during transition
  • Economic Status: very poor
disfranchisement 1890 1965
Disfranchisement 1890-1965
  • The attack: Blacks political corrupt; never learned republicanism; system must be purified
  • Defense: racism is even worse form of corruption
  • Result: blacks lose vote in deep South (1890-1965)
white views 1890 1930
White Views 1890-1930
  • Black and Tans
    • continue interracial coalition
  • Neo-Abolitionists
    • war not over till blacks get equality
  • Paternalists
    • Blacks need education & economic independence before vote
  • White Supremacists
    • zero toleration of black power
black leadership disputes 1890 1930
Black Leadership Disputes 1890-1930
  • Booker T. Washington, political leader
    • Atlanta speech, 1896 = accept segregation
    • Tuskegee Institute & industrial education
    • Work with T Roosevelt, Carnegie
  • W.E.B. DuBois--intellectual leader; NAACP
    • equality; liberal arts for “talented tenth”
  • Marcus Garvey: Black Nationalism, 1920s
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