Problem Commitment Checklist to Develop Problem Commitment (Each organization must be committed) 1. Determine the priority objectives for key organizations. 2. To change an organization’s priorities, we need to know: A) the decision-makers; B) what communication will have to take place 3. Strategies to change priorities. A) Exploit a crisis. B) Use comparison C) Use basic Education D) Emphasize reciprocal obligations E) Demonstrations and trial F) Evidence based on citizen’s preferences G) Point out the costs and benefits
Dealing withConflict Creatively The Nature of Conflict When an action by one person prevents, obstructs or interferes with the action of another person, conflict exists. Conflict Situations: 1) Two parties are involved in interaction 2) Mutually exclusive goals and/or values exist 3) Interaction is characterized by behavior designed to defeat, reduce or suppress the opponent or to gain a mutually designated victory. 4) The parties have an imbalance or relatively favored position of power vis-à-vis the other.
Behaviors Involved in Conflict Situations 1) Mirror image: Both parties feel they are innocent victims who represented truth & justice. Another term is Apolarized Thinking. 2) Mote Beam Mechanism: Each party perceives all the underhanded and vicious acts of the other party while being blind to identical acts engaged in by oneself. 3) Double Standard: If both parties are aware of identical acts they and others engage in, they often feel it is legitimate for themselves but illegitimate for the other party.
A Way to Manage Conflict 1. Identify the Problem. 2. Collect all relevant data. 3. Make the familiar unfamiliar 4. Choose a solution 5. Evaluation - Pick best fit and implement it.
Models of Conflict Management(Jay Hall) Two dimensional: Concern for relationship & concern for personal goals 1. Win/Lose Style - Focus on personal goals; Style is aggressive, dogmatic, inflexible with considerable use of suppression and coercion. 2. Yield/Lose Style - focus on concern for relationship. Style seeks to appease by ignoring, denying or avoiding conflict with tendency to submit to other. 3. Lose/Leave Style - Focus is one of hopelessness, protecting oneself. Characterized by depersonalization and careful avoidance; some compliance but without commitment.
Models of Conflict Management(Jay Hall) (cont.) 4. Compromise Style - characterized by a little winning and a little losing. Losing is softened by limiting gains. Strong use of persuasion and manipulation. Opportunism and ends justify the means further characterized this approach. 5. Synergistic Style or Win/Win - major focus is upon goals of persons or members and to the well-being of the relationship - all at once. Tolerance for differences is essential. A climate of trust is also critical. There can be no hidden agendas.
Preferences to the Conflict Management Styles 1. Win/Win or Synergistic Style 2. Compromise Style 3. Yield/Lose Style 4. Win/Lose Style 5. Lose/Leave Style
The Negotiation Model 1. SEPARATE THE PERSON FROM THE PROBLEM -- Active listening, paraphrasing -- “I” messages -- “The problem is not you, it’s …” 2. FOCUS ON INTERESTS, NOT POSITIONS Interest = needs, desires, fears, etc. Make your interests specific, clear, look for multiple interests. Positions = I will, I won’t, you better, you must
The NegotiationModel - (cont.) 3. EXPAND THE OPTIONS FOR MUTUAL GAIN -- brainstorm -- find shared interests options -- avoid single right solutions 4. USE OBJECTIVE CRITERIA -- brainstorm objective criteria -- stay flexible -- avoid yielding to temporary pressure for unspecified contract 5. RESTATE MUTUAL CONTRACT TERMS
1. Acknowledge: Pay Attention … That sounds like a difficult situation … 2. Validate: Show understanding … You must be very frustrated … 3. Empathize: Identify with the situation … It’s hard to feel caught in the middle… 4. Clarify: Help with full expression 5. Summarize: Review Statements ... That is what I’ve heard so far ... Techniques for Listening
Blocks to Listening 1. Derailing: The listener throws conversation off track. 2. Comparing: Comparing experiences when they don’t add insight. 3. Filtering: To hear only those parts important to listener and “tune out” everything else. 4. Rehearsing: Concentrating on what you are going to say while the other person is talking. 5. Judging: Judging another person’s actions prematurely.
Self Assessment Checklist 1. Do I make effective eye contact? 2. Do I exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial gestures? 3. Do I avoid distracting actions or gestures that suggest boredom? 4. Do I ask questions to clarify the situation? 5. Do I paraphrase using my own words? 6. Do I avoid interrupting the speaker? 7. Do I overtalk? 8. Do I remain neutral or do I judge what is being said? 9. Do I acknowledge and validate feelings and thoughts, and did I try to empathize? 10. Do I listen even though I may not like the person who is talking or what is being said?
Guidelines for Reaching Consensus 1. Practice active listening skills. 2. Encourage participation from each member of the group. 3. Share information. 4. Don’t agree too quickly. 5. Don’t bargain or trade support. 6. Don’t vote. 7. Treat differences as a strength. 8. Jointly craft a solution that can be supported. 9. Avoid arguing blindly for your position. 10. Seek a mutual-gain solution.
Promoting Open Communication 1. Neutrality:Could you say more about that? Help me understand your reasoning. 2. Re-framing: Changing the syntax or wording of message. Example: “You don’t get it do you? If these large hog factories come into the county, our quality of life will be destroyed!” Re-framed by you: “It sounds like maintaining a good quality of life in your county is important to you, and that you think that a hog facility might damage that.”
Attribute Rural Urban Community Mandatory Voluntary Interaction Roles Ascribed Achieved Sanctions Particularistic Universalistic Orientation Group Individual Leadership Traditional Rational Role Expectations Fit Individual Individual Fits Role Norms Informal Formal Relations Primary Secondary Goals May Not Justify Means Justify Means Authority Traditional Rational
The Basics of Community Conflict Value Conflict Resource Conflict • All sides in community agree on what is valued. See the resource as limited. Belief that if one aide gets the resource the other loses. • All sides in an issue do not agree as to what is valued in the community. • Disagreement exists regarding what should be done next in the community. • Agreement exists as to what to do but neither side sees and alternative but “winning” it all. • Dissensus exists- that is, the disagreement between the groups is based on differing values. • Personalities may also play a role in resource conflict. • Personalities may also play a role in value conflict- individuals may see themselves tied closely to their public position. • Occupation of key players in the conflict may also influence community support or non-support
Build-up Stage Coalitions Develop High Conflict Stage Charges & Counter-Charges Develop Post or “new” Build-up Stage A Quiet Atmosphere Develops Stages of Community Conflict Highest Potential For Resolution of Conflict
A Model of Community Conflict Resolution Base Possible Resolution Tactics Consensus (Resource Scarce) Conversion To A New Image Negotiated Settlement Dissensus (Value Conflict) • Mediating Circumstances can influence success of resolution tactics
Resolving Value Conflict • Identify stage of conflict • Identify key players • Bring conflict out in the open, i.e. a public meeting • Ask key players to meet to discuss differences • Focus on areas of agreement • Provide arena for input from all sides • For serious conflict use a mediator
Resolving Resource Conflict • Identify stage of conflict • Identify key players • Create new or use existing social events to bring groups together socially • Identify ways to create a new image of who is a member of the larger community • Move slowly
Strategies for Resolving Community Conflict 1) Identify type of conflict 2) If a value conflict exists-organize open discussion session 3) If a resource conflict exists-organize members of factions 4) Provide accurate information to the community 5) Maintain or develop contact with representatives from all of the factions within the community 6) Organize a mediation session 7) Continue Build-up stage strategies
Community Conflict Using it for Progress Resource Conflict Value Conflict 1) Bring differing views out into the public eye. Can be used to move in new directions. 1) Identifies areas for new coalitions. 2) Provides specific areas to develop. 3) Social activities developed to resolve resource conflicts add to marketing areas for community. 2) Can provide input form minority views within the community. 3) Provides areas of agreement to build on.