1936 Berlin Olympics Fritz, Kerstin, Ulrich(Jordan Zahn, Elizabeth Edwards, Daniel Roch)
Nazis Rise To Power • After WWI Germany slipped into political and economic decline. • The Nazi party grew through the 1920’s in Germany. • In 1933 the Nazis assumed power. • Hitler was then chancellor of Germany
Hitler • Born in Austria in 1889. • Fought for Germany in WWI. • Had a very persuasive personality which caused many to follow.
Nazi Stronghold On Germany Won a free election to claim power in 1932. Assumed power over Germany in 1933. Developed a fascist political system. Obsessed with supreme Aryan race.
Cities In Running Berlin, GermanyBarcelona, SpainAlexandria, EgyptBudapest, HungaryBuenos Aires, Argentina Cologne, GermanyDublin, IrelandFrankfurt, GermanyHelsinki, FinlandLausanne, SwitzerlandNuremberg, GermanyRio de Janeiro, BrazilRome, Italy
Choosing Berlin • In 1931 the International Olympic chose Berlin ahead of Barcelona to hold the Summer Olympics in 1936. • Berlin had amounted 43 votes while Barcelona was the only other city to collect any votes with 16. • The choice signaled Germany’s return to the world community after it’s defeat in World War I. • Two years later the Nazi Party assumed power.
Reichssportfeld • The Olympics took place in a sports complex called Reichssportfeld. • This consisted of 2 main stadiums and 150 other buildings to hold various events. • The largest stadium was called Olympiastadion which held 50,000 people. • Construction took place between 1934 and 1936.
Controversy • Many controversies were involved with the 1936 Olympics. • One of the main controversies was the fact that Hitler would not allow Jews to compete for Germany in the games • Another Controversy was the fact that many western democratic nations feared for the safety of their athletes. • Also, Germany was questioned for major human rights violations.
By December 1933 all people of the Jewish faith were banned from all sporting activities in Germany. Jews were not allowed to use any facilities in which would help them to compete athletically or physically. In January of 1936, to avoid the IOC from taking the Olympics, some anti-Jewish laws were temporarily lifted. Though, this did not help to stop any religious or racial persecution. Restrictions on Jews
Boycott threats Once the Nazi party took over, most western democracies questioned the morality of supporting a Nazi hosted Olympics. “Many of the liberal and left-wing political groups that denounced Hitler's fascist dictatorship linked their opposition to the Berlin Olympics with the wider economic boycott of Germany.”
Americas take The United States traditionally sent a large number of athletes to the Olympic games. However based on the political climate in Germany America debated over whether to participate.
America’s take • Brundage, a member of the IOC, stated that “The Olympic Games belong to the athletes and not to the politicians.” • Though many opposed this argument, America decided to participate.
List of nations • Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, The Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Uruguay, Yugoslavia
There were 130 different competitions in the 1936 Berlin games One of the most popular events was track and field. Some other events included: Basketball Boxing Rowing Soccer Hockey Events
German Preparation • The Nazis had their athletes training full time for the Olympic game to prove the Aryan supremacy on the world stage. • Lutz Lang was among the finest of the German athletes. He also fit the description of an Aryan with blonde hair and blue eyes.
Born September 12, 1913 in Lawrence County, Alabama When Owens was 9 his father moved to Cleveland, Ohio Grandson of a former Slave His nickname “Jesse” was given by a teacher who had mistaken his name as “J.C.” because of his southern accent. Owens later attended Ohio State University where he became a track and field national champion. James Cleveland Owens
Jesse owens events • Owens competed in many events in the 1936 Olympics • Some events he competed in were 100m sprint, long jump, 200m dash, and 4x100m relay team
Owens in Competition • Owens was considered an inferior athlete by the Nazis because he was not Aryan. • His chief German rival was Lutz Lang. • In a very close long jump final, Owens defeated Lang. • After the competition, Lang was the first to congratulate Owens.
Medals won • Owens won gold medals in • 100m sprint • 200m dash • Long jump • 4x100m relay
Hitler/Owens • On the first day Hitler would only shake hands with German medalists. • Some speculate this was to avoid shaking hands with African-American Cornelius Johnson. • The International Olympic committee urged Hitler to shake hands with all medalists • Hitler did not attend anymore medal presentations, therefore never shaking the hand of Jesse Owens.
Owens Quotes • "We all have dreams. In order to make dreams come into reality, it takes an awful lot of determination, dedication, self-discipline and effort.” • "Find the good. It's all around you. Find it, showcase it and you'll start believing it." • "One chance is all you need." • "It all goes so fast, and character makes the difference when it's close."
Gold medal performers included: Men’s basketball Men’s rowing Jesse Owens (4) Archie Williams John Woodruff Ralph Metcalfe Forrest Towns Glen Hardin Foy Draper Frank Wykoff Cornelius Cooper Johnson Earle Meadows Ken Carpenter Glen Morris Helen Stephens (2) Harriet Brand Elizabeth Robinson Annette Rodgers Dorothy Odam American sucess
German Gold Medalists include: Hans Woellke Karl Hein Gerhard Stöck Gisela Mauermayer Tilly Fleischer Willi Kaiser Herbert Runge Ernst Krebs Ludwig Landen Paul Wevers Toni Merkens Ernst Ihbe Carl Lorenz Peter Bischoff Hans-Joachim Weise Cornelius van Oyen Josef Manger Ludwig Stubbendorff Rolf Lippert Kurt Hasse Heinz Brandt Marten von Barnekow Heinz Pollay Friedrich Gerhard Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski Alfred Schwarzmann Konrad Frey Men’s and Womens GymnasticsMens Handball Gotthard Handrick Gustav Schäfer Willi Eichhorn Hugo Strauß Men’s Rowing German success
Germany and USA Medal Count • Germany finished the Olympic games with the most medals at 89. • 33 Gold • 26 Silver • 30 Bronze • The United States finished second in the medal count with 56 medals. • 24 Gold • 20 Silver • 12 Bronze
Berlin/Beijing • Both the 2008 Beijing Olympics and the 1936 Berlin Olympics had major controversy over human rights. • In both Olympics The United States had threatened to boycott the games.
For this summers Olympics, China plans to displace 1.5million residents of Beijing China has instituted harsh laws which will put citizens in jail for far longer than appropriate Beijing will banish all people who do not have residency permits Beijing will banish all vagrants, beggars, and people with mental illness. Beijing residents will be forced to stay at home during Olympics. China will forcibly prevent all protesters and will imprison all whom they feel act non-beneficial to the state. Beijing also has a major air pollution problem which will affect both citizens and athletes. Beijing Controversy
Works cited • http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/olympics.html • http://www.jesseowens.info/index.html • www.wikipedia.org • http://www.gamesbids.com/english/archives/past.shtml • http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/1936_berlin_olympics.htm • http://www.feldgrau.com/1936olymp.html