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  1. Mathematics in OI Prepared by Ivan Li

  2. Mathematics in OI • Greatest Common Divisor • Finding Primes • High Precision Arithmetic • Partial Sum and Differencing

  3. Greatest Common Divisor • Motivation • Sometimes we want “k divides m” and “k divides n” occur simultaneously. • And we want to merge the two statements into one equivalent statement: “k divides ?”

  4. Greatest Common Divisor • Definition • The greatest natural number dividing both n and m • A natural number k dividing both n and m, such that for each natural number h dividing both n and m, we have k divisible by h.

  5. Greatest Common Divisor • How to find it? • Check each natural number not greater than m and n if it divides both m and n. Then select the greatest one. • Euclidean Algorithm

  6. Euclidean Algorithm • Assume m > n GCD(m,n) While n > 0 m = m mod n swap m and n Return m

  7. Greatest Common Divisor • What if we want the greatest number which divides n1,n2, …, nm-1 and nm? • Apply GCD two-by-two • gcd(n1,n2, …,nm) = gcd(n1,gcd(n2,gcd(n3,…gcd(nm-1,nm)…))

  8. Applications • Solve mx + ny = a for integers x and y • Can be solved if and only if a is divisible by gcd(m,n)

  9. Applications • Simplifying a fraction m/n • If gcd(m,n) > 1, then the fraction can be simplified by dividing gcd(m,n) on the numerator and the denominator.

  10. Least Common Multiple • Definition • The least natural number divisible by both n and m • A natural number k divisible by both n and m, such that for each natural number h divisible by both n and m, we have k divides h. • Formula • lcm(m,n) = mn/gcd(m,n)

  11. Least Common Multiple • What if we want to find the LCM of more than two numbers? • Apply LCM two-by-two?

  12. Definition of Prime Numbers An integer p greater than 1 such that: • p has factors 1 and p only? • If p = ab, a b, then a = 1 and b = p ? • If p divides ab, then p divides a or p divides b ? • p divides (p - 1)! + 1 ?

  13. Test for a prime number • By Property 1 • For each integer greater than 1 and less than p, check if it divides p • Actually we need only to check integers not greater than sqrt(p) (Why?)

  14. Finding Prime Numbers • For each integer, check if it is a prime • Prime List • Sieve of Eratosthenes

  15. Prime List • Stores a list of prime numbers found • For each integer, check if it is divisible by any of the prime numbers found • If not, then it is a prime. Add it to the list.

  16. Sieve of Eratosthenes • Stores an array of Boolean values Comp[i] which indicates whether i is a known composite number

  17. Sieve of Eratosthenes for i = 2 … n If not Comp[i] output i j = 2*i while j n Comp[j] = true j = j + i

  18. Optimization • Consider odd numbers only • Do not forget to add 2, the only even prime

  19. High Precision Arithmetic • 32-bit signed integer:-2147483648 … 2147483647 • 64-bit signed integer:-9223372036854775808 … 9223372036854775807 • How to store a 100 digit number?

  20. High Precision Arithmetic • Use an array to store the digits of the number • Operations: • Comparison • Addition / Subtraction • Multiplication • Division and remainder

  21. High Precision Division • Locate the position of the first digit of the quotient • For each digit of the quotient (starting from the first digit), find its value by binary search.

  22. High Precision Arithmetic • How to select the base? • Power of 2 : Saves memory • Power of 10 : Easier input / output • 1000 or 10000 for 16-bit integer array • Beware of carry

  23. More on HPA • How to store • negative numbers? • fractions? • floating-point numbers?

  24. Partial Sum • Motivation • How to find the sum of the 3rd to the 6th element of an array a[i] ? • a[3] + a[4] + a[5] + a[6] • How to find the sum of the 1000th to the 10000th element? • A for-loop will take much time • In order to find the sum of a range in an array efficiently, we need to do some preprocessing.

  25. Partial Sum • Use an array s[i] to store the sum of the first i elements. • s[i] = a[1] + a[2] + … + a[i] • The sum of the j th element to the k th element = s[k] – s[j-1] • We usually set s[0] = 0

  26. Partial Sum • How to compute s[i] ? • During input s[0] = 0 for i = 1 to n input a[i] s[i] = s[i-1] + a[i]

  27. Differencing • Motivation • How to increment the 3rd to the 6th element of an array a[i] ? • a[3]++, a[4]++, a[5]++, a[6]++ • How to increment the 1000th to the 10000th element? • A for-loop will take much time • In order to increment(or add an arbitrary value to) a range of elements in an array efficiently, we will use a special method to store the array.

  28. Differencing • Use an array d[i] to store the difference between a[i] and a[i-1]. • d[i] = a[i] - a[i-1] • When the the j th element to the k th element is incremented, • d[j] ++, d[k+1] - - • We usually set d[1] = a[1]

  29. Differencing • Easy to compute d[i] • But how to convert it back to a[i]? • Before (or during) output a[0] = 0 for i = 1 to n a[i] = a[i-1] + d[i] output a[i] • Quite similar to partial sum, isn’t it?

  30. Relation between the two methods • They are “inverse” of each other • Denote the partial sum of a by a • Denote the difference of a by a • The difference operator • We have (a) = (a) = a

  31. Comparison • Partial sum - Fast sum of range query • Difference - Fast range incrementation • Ordinary array - Fast query and incrementation on single element

  32. Runtime Comparison

  33. Does there exist a method to perform range query and range update in constant time?

  34. Question?