Mass Communication. Living in a Media World. Ralph Hanson West Virginia University – Morgantown. Slide 1. Chapter 12. Public Relations: Manufacturing the News. Profile: Carolyn Curry From Press Agentry to Professionalism The Business of Public Relations Public Relations and Society.
Mass Communication Living in a Media World Ralph Hanson West Virginia University – Morgantown Slide 1
Chapter 12 Public Relations: Manufacturing the News Profile: Carolyn Curry From Press Agentry to Professionalism The Business of Public Relations Public Relations and Society ChapterOutline
Profile: Carolyn Curry • WVU named “Number 1 Party School” in 1998 by Princeton Review’s college guide • Curry given task of fighting the publicity • “Operation Jump Start” included: • Faculty in dorms • “WVUp All Night” program • Staff training in speaking and interviewing • WVU off the party list by 1999
From Press Agentry to Professionalism • The Origins of Public Relations (PR) • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense • P.T. Barnum used false letters to penny press • First major users were the railroads in 1870s • Ivy Lee • Importance of symbolism • Improved railroads’ handling of accidents • “Tell the truth because sooner or later the public will find it out anyway.”
From Press Agentry to Professionalism • The Origins of Public Relations (PR) • Edward Bernays • Applied social-scientific research techniques • “engineering the public’s consent” • Promoted PR as a profession • Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) • Propaganda (1928) • Major growth in WWI when Wilson used 75000 “Four Minute Men” to influence opinion leaders
The Business of Public Relations Public Relations involves managing an organization’s image through planning, research, communication, and assessment.
The Business of Public Relations • Three major functions of PR • Informing • Sending out information to a variety of publics • Persuading • Attempting to induce publics to change attitudes or actions • Integrating • Attempting to bring publics and institutions together
The Business of Public Relations Public Relations is “the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.”
The Business of Public Relations Public Relations is “the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the [various] publicson whom its success or failure depends.”
The Business of Public Relations • The Public Relations Process • Example: Breathe Right nasal strips • Defining the problem or opportunity • Communicate use of strips in athletics • Planning and programming • Finding: use of strips in 1995 Super Bowl was noticed by the public • Taking action and communicating • Distribute samples and place ads during game • Evaluating the program
The Business of Public Relations • Who Are the Publics? • Internal Publics • Work for client company • Informal source of company news • Internal communications are varied • External Publics • Relations with the press are crucial • Placement of unpaid messages into regular or news content of a medium, including VNRs • Susan Courtney – “Building up an ‘equity’ account” • Example: Ford Explorer tire failures
The Business of Public Relations A crisis is an event that is perceived by the public as being damaging to the reputation or image of an organization.
The Business of Public Relations • Principles of crisis communication • Be prepared with a crisis plan • Be honest, because cover-ups look worse • Apologize, and show you mean it with action • Move quickly, because perception sets after a few hours • Communicate with the press and other constituencies
The Business of Public Relations • The Tylenol Scare • September 1992 in Chicago • 7 people died from cyanide-laced Tylenol • Johnson & Johnson worked with PR firm Burston-Marsteller • J&J was honest about crisis, then took immediate action to remove product, first locally, then nationally • Relaunched in two months with triple seals and extensive PR campaign
Public Relations and Society • PR Supports the News Business • 40-90% of all news starts out as PR • Columbia Journalism Review studied stories in The Wall Street Journal • 72% of analyzed stories based almost exclusively on press releases • Estimated 45% of all stories that day based on press releases • Estimated 90% of all stories that day initiated by a company announcement
Public Relations and Society • PR and the Civil Rights Movement • Martin Luther King made extensive, skilled use of PR during 1950s and 1960s • Choice of Birmingham in April 1963 based on target of Police Commissioner Bull Conner • Press conferences, leaflets, demonstrations, marches, sit-ins, boycotts • King arrested and wrote “The Letter from Birmingham Jail”