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  1. Follow the Leader if you Can... Meghan Holub Linda Keenan Sherry Ricketts Julie Speers Sheena Trent

  2. Case Study: 2000 - 2004

  3. Case Study: 2004 - 2009

  4. Theoretically Speaking – Models of Leadership CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP • “In religion, charisma stems from prophecy; in organizations, charisma stems from advocacy for the future” (Congo and Kanungo, 1987) • “The leader becomes charismatic when they succeed in changing followers beliefs to accept their challenge” (Congo and Kanungo, 1987) • 3 stages of leader development: Environmental Assessment Phase, Vision Formulation, Implementation TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP • Active management by exception; contingent rewards based on performance – negative reinforcement when errors/failure occur; rewards/punishments are meted out by the leaders; leaders manipulate and control the situation and followers (Eliyana, 2010; McGuire and Kennerly, 2006) • Followers are not expected to ‘think’ innovatively (Eliyana, 2010) • Outcomes of this leadership: role clarity, job satisfaction and improved performance

  5. Theory Embedded in Practice: A Study of Charismatic Style • Natural leader • Supportive • Attended meetings to be able to provide information to staff • Enthusiasm • RESPECT • Consistent service delivery

  6. The Study Continues... the Shift to Transactional Leadership Reorganization • Shift in service delivery New Management • Change in leadership – charismatic to transactional Results of New Leadership

  7. Summary of Learning’s Use of Charismatic Style: • Use of influence rather than power yields great results • Relationship with staff is key • Important to have involvement with the staff and the program • Knowledge and wisdom of the role and work • Cycle of respect • “Service above self”

  8. Summary of Learning’s Use of Transactional Style: • Focus is on power rather than influence • Employees do not feel important or valued, productivity and satisfaction decreases • Importance seems to be placed on getting the job done • No sense of community or connectedness • Reward or exchange based • “To rule or govern is easy, to lead is difficult”

  9. Transformational Leadership Personality Traits and Leadership Style • Research by Bono and Judge (2004) indicates that the link between personality and leadership behaviours is weak • This may signify that leadership behaviours can be taught, as they are not based on specific personality traits Four Core Elements of Transformational Leadership • Individualized Consideration • Intellectual Stimulation • Inspirational Motivation • Idealized Influence

  10. Transformational Leadership Effective Transformational Leadership During an Organizational Change • Research has suggested that the main reason for an organization’s ability to create successful and lasting change lies in the leader’s ability to lead an effective change effort. Phases of Transformational Leadership During a Change Process (Holbeche, 2006) • Recognizing the Need for Change • Creating a New Vision • Institutionalizing the Change

  11. Guess the Leadership Style... • ‘Happy face’ for Charismatic leadership • ‘Clapping hands’ for Transformational leadership • ‘Confused face’ for Transactional leadership PAY RAISE VISIONARY INSPIRATIONAL COLLABORATIVE HIGH INTELLIGENCE RESPECT STATUS QUO NEED FOR ORDER OPTIMISTIC TRUST REFRAMING INNOVATIVE HIGH ORIGINALITY LOOKS FOR MISTAKES MOTIVATING EMPOWERING PRODUCTIVITY LOW MORALE

  12. "People underestimate their capacity for change. There is never a right time to do a difficult thing.   A leader's job is to help people have a vision of their potential"   John Porter

  13. References Bono, J.E. & Judge, T.A. (2004) Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5) 901-910. Conger, Jay A., Kanungo, Rabindra N. Toward a Behavioural Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review. Briarcliff Manor: Oct 1987. Vol. 12, Iss. 4, p. 637 (11 pp.) Eliyana, A. (2010). Impacts of transactional and transformational leaderships upon organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 7(6), 24-30. Retrieved from EBSCOhost: http://ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login. aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55070548&site=ehost-live Holbeche (2006) Understanding Change Theory, Implemenation and Success. Burlington (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann. McGuire, E., &Kennerly, S. M. (2006). Nurse Managers as Transformational and Transactional Leaders. Nursing Economic$, 24(4), 179-185. Retrieved from EBSCOhost: http://ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login. aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22076433&site=ehost-live