150w portable direct methanol fuel cell power supply battery charger l.
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150W Portable Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Power Supply/Battery Charger. Lawrence J. Gestaut Cecelia Cropley Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Newton, MA 2005 Joint Service Power Expo Tampa, FL - May 4, 2005. Why Fuel Cells?.

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150w portable direct methanol fuel cell power supply battery charger
150W Portable Direct Methanol Fuel CellPower Supply/Battery Charger
  • Lawrence J. Gestaut
  • Cecelia Cropley
  • Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
  • Newton, MA
  • 2005 Joint Service Power Expo
  • Tampa, FL - May 4, 2005
why fuel cells
Why Fuel Cells?
  • Fuel cells … can offer quiet operation, a lower heat signature, fuel efficiency, … supporting communications, surveillance and other electronic equipment.
  • - Fuel Cell Today, April 20, 2005
battery logistics
Battery Logistics
  • “Marines reported they were down to less than a 2-day supply” of primary batteries during OIF combat operations.
  • “CECOM officials said they were developing newer, lighter-weight rechargeable batteries…to reduce dependence on disposable batteries.”
  • US GAO “Actions Needed to Improve the Availability of Critical Items during Current and Future Operations”, April 2005, pps. 90,95
battery limitations
Battery Limitations
  • Portable power is critical, but
    • Batteries can not provide increasing energy demands
    • Primary batteries are a logistic and cost concern
    • Secondary batteries require a portable and reliable charger
what is a direct methanol fuel cell
What is a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell?
  • CH3OH + H2O → CO2 + 6H+ + 6e-
  • 3/2 O2 + 6H+ + 6e- → 3H2O
  • CH3OH + 3/2 O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
  • No compressed hydrogen– No reformer
applications
Applications
  • Small systems
    • 20 W battery replacements
  • Mid systems
    • 150 to 500 W generators/chargers
  • Large systems
    • 2 to 5 kW diesel generator replacements
types of dmfc small systems
Types of DMFCSmall Systems
  • Natural air convection
  • Passive water management
  • Passive cooling
  • Low current density
  • >30% methanol possible
  • Generally planar cells
small system
Small System

Toshiba 12W/20W peak

Photo from Fuel Cell Today

types of dmfc mid large systems
Types of DMFCMid &Large Systems
  • Discrete components
  • Forced air
  • Active water management
  • Active cooling
  • Moderate current density
  • Dilute methanol water mix
types of dmfc large stacks systems
Types of DMFCLarge Stacks & Systems

800 W System

1.5 kW Stack

ges approach to dmfc
GES Approach to DMFC
  • Bipolar stack, operating at high power density
  • Neat methanol fuel, on-board dilution
  • Operate at 60-70°C
  • Near-atmospheric air supplied by blower
dmfc operation
DMFC Operation
  • Transportable
  • Rapid start
  • Load following
  • Low thermal signature
dmfc refueling
DMFC Refueling
  • Liquid fuel
  • Refuelable “on-the-fly”
advantages of dmfc
Advantages of DMFC
  • High system energy density
  • Safe and easy transport
  • Long membrane lifetime
  • Reactant humidification is not required
disadvantages of dmfc
Disadvantages of DMFC
  • Lower cell voltage and lower current density
    • Larger stack, but light and compact
  • Fuel efficiency
    • Currently ~17%,
    • Forecast ~25%
ges 150 w dmfc
GES 150 W DMFC
  • 6.8 kg
  • 10 liter
  • 3 hours operation with stored fuel
  • Rapid start
  • Excellent load following
future development
Future Development
  • Reduce stack weight and volume by > 25%
    • Increase power density
      • Improve catalysis and structures
      • Improve mass transfer
      • Reduce methanol crossover
    • Improved Stack Design
      • Lighter/thinner end and bipolar plates
slide23

Systems Engineering Issues

  • Improve reliability, durability and ruggedness
  • Store and operate over military temperature range
  • Reduce thermal and acoustic signatures
  • Decrease unit size and weight
conclusions
Conclusions
  • 150W DMFC provides >60% weight reduction compared to primary batteries for 72-hour missions
  • DMFCs have many advantages including ease of fueling
  • DMFC could be fielded in the near term
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • DARPA
  • Army Research Laboratory
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Parker Hannifin