using robots in autism therapy a survey of ongoing research l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on

Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research. Marjorie Skubic Associate Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept. Computer Science Dept. (joint apt.). Outline. Motivation – How I got interested Autistic disorders A survey of the research Why robots might help

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research' - maddox


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
using robots in autism therapy a survey of ongoing research

Using Robots in Autism Therapy: A Survey of Ongoing Research

Marjorie Skubic

Associate Professor

Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

Computer Science Dept. (joint apt.)

outline
Outline
  • Motivation – How I got interested
  • Autistic disorders
  • A survey of the research
    • Why robots might help
  • The field of researchers
  • Conclusions
how i got interested
How I got interested
  • Research in Human-Robot Interaction
  • Looking for a killer application
  • Better – How can we use robots to help people?
  • Talks at the IEEE RO-MAN 2005 Workshop
autistic disorders
Autistic Disorders
  • 1 of 300 children diagnosed with autism with rates rising
    • 1 of 800 children diagnosed with Down syndrome
    • 1 of 450 children diagnosed with juvenile diabetes
    • 1 of 333 children will develop cancer by age 20
  • Diagnosis currently made through behavioral observation
    • No blood test or genetic screening is available although there is evidence of a genetic link
autistic disorders characteristics
Autistic Disorders: Characteristics
  • Inability to relate to other people
  • Little use of eye contact with other people
  • Difficulty understanding gestures and facial expressions
  • Difficulties with verbal & non-verbal communication
  • Difficulty understanding other’s intentions, feelings, and mental states
why use robots
Why Use Robots?
  • Most children, including children with autism, are attracted to robots.
  • This natural affinity is exploited, and the robot is used as an interactive toy.
  • Robots may provide a less threatening environment than interacting with people.
    • Robots can provide a repetitive and more predictable environment.
    • This “safe” environment can gently push a child with autism towards human interaction.
the connection to imitation
The Connection to Imitation
  • One theory: Autism may be caused by early impairments in imitation and shared attention(Rogers & Pennington, 1991) (Baron-Cohen, 1995)
  • Imitation is a format of communication, a means to express interest and engage others in interaction(Nadel, 1999)
  • Idea: Use a doll-like robot to engage children with autism and teach basic imitative interaction skills
    • From: K. Dautenhahn, and A. Billard, Games Children with Autism Can Play With Robota, a Humanoid Robotic Doll, Proc. 1st Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology, 2002
robota
Robota

A six-year old autistic boy playing with Robota. He seemed curious about Robota's head movements and so he touches the doll.

From: K. Dautenhahn, and A. Billard, Games Children with Autism Can Play With Robota, a Humanoid Robotic Doll, Proc. 1st Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology, 2002

imitation using robota
Imitation Using Robota

“Robota … allows the child to understand that the doll’s movement originates from his own movement (sense of agency) and is limited to a restricted category of movement (enhances intentional action)”

From: J. Nadel, “Early Imitation and a Sense of Agency,” Proc. 4th Intl. Workshop on Epigenetic Robots, 2004

slide10

An autistic child playing “chasing” games with the mobile robot

From: K. Dautenhahn, and A. Billard, Games Children with Autism Can Play With Robota, a Humanoid Robotic Doll, Proc. 1st Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology, 2002

joint attention using robota
Joint Attention Using Robota

Robota is controlled via teleoperation by the investigator.

From: B. Robins, P. Dickerson, and K. Dautenhahn, “Robots as

Embodied Beings – Interactionally Sensitive Body Movements

In Interactions Among Autistic Children and a Robot,”

Proc. RO-MAN 2005

slide12

Two autistic children:

Note Andy’s gaze at

Jack.

The investigator encourages the children to show each other how

they can interact with the robot.

The robot will not move unless the children show the same movement,

i.e., they must work together.

slide14

Adam shows no interest in his classmates

and usually tries to avoid the rest of the

children. But Adam is interested in Robota.

Adam takes Rob’s hand to show him how to interact with Robota.

interacting with keepon
Interacting with Keepon

Keepon is controlled via teleoperation.

From: H. Kozima, C. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuda, “Interactive

Robots for Communication-Care: A Case Study in Autism

Therapy,” Proc. RO-MAN 2005

slide17

Attentive action

Emotive action

Keepon's kinematic mechanism. Two gimbals are connected by four wires; the lower gimbal is driven by two motors. Another motor rotates the whole inner-structure; yet another drives the skull downward for bobbing.

enabling interaction
Enabling Interaction

Eye-contact: Referring to each other's mental states

Joint attention: Sharing the perceptual information

Enables people to exchange intention and emotion toward a target.

slide19

Emergence of dyadic interaction. Spontaneous actions to Keepon (left) and actions copied from others (right).

Emergence of triadic interaction. The child discovers excitement in Keepon (left) and then looks at the adult to share the excitement (right).

using robots for autism diagnosis
Using Robots for Autism Diagnosis

ESRA

Playtest

From: B. Scassellati, “Quantitative Metrics of Social Response

for Autism Diagnosis,” Proc. RO-MAN 2005

autism diagnosis methods
Autism Diagnosis Methods
  • Reaction to the ESRA robot with and without the face configuration

Can generate facial expressions

using 5 servo motors

autism diagnosis methods22

At the press of a button,

an audio clip is played.

The interaction is logged

in non-volatile memory.

Autism Diagnosis Methods
  • Measure listening preferences to speech sounds
autism diagnosis methods23
Autism Diagnosis Methods
  • Vocal prosody, i.e., how something is said

Features F24 vs. F1

Mean pitch * energy vs. mean pitch

Separation of two features used in a Bayesian classifier distinguishes low energy categories (neutral and soothing) from high energy categories (approval, attention, and prohibition).

autism diagnosis methods24
Autism Diagnosis Methods
  • Position tracking relative to another person
autism diagnosis methods25
Autism Diagnosis Methods
  • Gaze direction and focus of attention

Red – adolescents with autism

Blue – typical adolescents

slide26

Linear discriminant analysis of autistic (au) and typical (nc) gaze patterns. Linear filters F(x) are trained to reproduce the gaze pattern G(x) of each individual x and then applied to predict the gaze patterns of any other individual.

For example, F(au)*G(self) indicates a filter trained on an individual with autism and tested on that same individual while F(nc)*G(au) indicates a filter trained on a control individual and tested on an individual with autism. The mean performance of this data (y-axis) is a function of the response percentile of individual pairings. Significant differences (all p<0.01 for a two-tailed t-test) are seen between the following classes: (1) F(nc)*G(self), (2) F(au)*G(self), (3) F(nc)* G(other nc), and (4) the three other conditions.

university of sherbrooke
University of Sherbrooke
  • Project for engineering students:
    • Design a robotic toy for an autistic child
  • Educational value
    • Real world problem
    • Students work together in a team
    • Students must first investigate autistic disorders
university of sherbrooke28
University of Sherbrooke

Pushing Jumbo around the play area.

Rolling game with Roball.

From: Michaud, F., Théberge-Turmel, C. (2002), "Mobile robotic toys and autism", Socially Intelligent Agents - Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots, Kluwer, pp. 125-132.

university of sherbrooke29
University of Sherbrooke

Girl showing signs of interest toward Bobus.

Assembling the arms and tail of C-Pac.

From: Michaud, F., Théberge-Turmel, C. (2002), "Mobile robotic toys and autism", Socially Intelligent Agents - Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots, Kluwer, pp. 125-132.

the field of researchers
The Field of Researchers
  • Francois Michaud
    • University of Sherbrooke, Canada
  • Kerstin Dautenhahn & Ben Robbins
    • University of Hertfordshire, UK
  • Aude Billard
    • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
  • Jacqueline Nadel
    • French National Centre of Scientific Research
the field of researchers32
The Field of Researchers
  • Brian Scassellati and Bob Schultz
    • Yale University
  • Javier Movellan
    • University of California – San Diego
  • Hideki Kozima
    • National Institute of ICT, Japan
  • Michio Okada
    • ATR, Kyoto, Japan
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The use of robots for autism therapy and diagnosis is just beginning.
  • There is anecdotal evidence that robot therapy can help children with autism
  • How can we start here at MU with the new Thompson Family Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders?
maybe the tiger kitty
Maybe the Tiger Kitty

The iCat by Philips Research

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Thanks to Brian Scassellati, Francois Michaud, Ben Robins, and Hideki Kozima for helpful discussions.