Essential Question How does the number of musicians in an orchestra relate to the quality of its sound?
Unit Questions • How many musicians are in a typical orchestra? • What are the families of instruments that make up an orchestra? • How has the orchestra evolved into the modern day orchestra?
The Instruments of the Orchestra By Michael Jackson
Unit Overview • History of the Orchestra • Modern Arrangement of Families • Meet the Woodwinds • Meet the Strings & Harp • Meet the Brass Instruments • Meet the Percussion Instruments
History of the Orchestra • Originates from ancient Greece. • First purpose was to accompany plays. • Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer used orchestra to accompany his first opera, Orfeo. • Had 40 players • Violins & viols • Flutes • Shawms (early oboes) • Trumpets • Sackbuts (early trombones) • Harpsichord, organ, and harp
Meet The Woodwinds • Woodwinds are basically tubes pierced with holes. • They produce sound through the vibration of the air column inside the tube. • Some woodwinds have reeds. A reed is a thin piece of cane that vibrates when blown across. • Piccolo: Highest Pitched; Mimics sound of bird; Smallest of family • Flute: No Reed • Clarinet: Single Reed; Expressive tone • Oboe: Double Reed; Sad tone • Bassoon: Double Reed;Lowest Pitched
WOODWINDS Clarinet Double Reed Bassoon Flute Oboe Piccolo
Meet the Strings & Harp • Largest Section of the Orchestra • Crafted by carving, shaping and glueing wood pieces together; no nails or screws are used. • Each instrument has four strings, the vibrations of which makes the instrument sound. • Come in many sizes: • the larger the instrument, the lower the sound, • the smaller the instrument, the higher the sound. • Sound is made on string instruments by playing their strings two ways; plucking or bowing. • Violin: Smallest member of family • Viola: Slightly larger than violin with a much warmer and lower tone • Cello: Bass member of family; musician must sit to play instrument • Double Bass: Lowest pitch of family; mostly played while standing • Harp: Largest of family; has 45 strings
STRINGS & HARP Violin Viola Cello Double Bass Harp
Meet the Brass Instruments • Metallic loops of tubing, in different lengths, with a mouthpiece at one end and a bell shape at the other. • The longer the length of tubing, the lower the sound. • Brass players' lips act as reeds. • Sound is produced by buzzing with the lips while blowing in the mouthpiece. • Most have valves that are pressed and released to change and produce different tones. • The trombone has a slide that when moved changes the length of tubing, and therefore the pitch. • All brass instruments have mutes that are placed in the bell to soften the tone or change tone color.
BRASS INSTRUMENTS Trumpet Trombone French Horn Tuba
Meet the Percussion Instruments • Made of naturally resonant materials like skin, wood or metal. • Sound is produced when the instrument is struck. • The role of this section is to provide rhythm and character to the orchestra. • These instruments range from simple wooden blocks to tuned instruments.
PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS Cymbals Glockenspiel Snare Drum Chimes Tambourine Timpani Triangle Xylophone
Sound Examples For Sound Examples of Each Instrument Go To The Dallas Symphony Orchestra Instrument Webpage http://www.dsokids.com/2001/instrumentchart.htm Click Button Above To Enter Site