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2. Lipids • compounds composed ofCarbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen(where the ratio of C to H isgreater than 1:2) • not soluble in water • Hydrophobic • Remember: “stores the most energy”
Functions of Lipids: 1. Long Term Energy Storage(fat) 2. Protection Against Heat Loss (aka insulation by fats) 3. Protection Against Water Loss & Germs (oils & waxes) 4. Chemical Messengers (steroid hormones) 5. Major Component of Membranes (phospholipids)
Lipids – Major Examples: 1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid Hormones 6. Triglycerides
Triglyceride Simple Picture of Triglyceride
O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = H H-C----O H-C----O H-C----O H O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = fatty acids O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH = =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 glycerol • Triglycerides:composed of 1 glycerol and3 fatty acids
O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = saturated • There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels: 1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH = unsaturated =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
Saturated Fats • Solid at Room Temp • No Double Bonds • Every C has a H Bad Fats • Unsaturated Fats • Liquid at Room Temp • Some Double Bonds • Kinks in Chain Good Fats Double Bond = “Kink”
Phospholipid • Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. • Phosphate “Head” = hydrophilic • Fatty Acid “Tails” = hydrophobic
3. Proteins (Polypeptides) = composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds Protein Monomer:Amino Acids • Amino Acids are thebuilding blocksof protein. • There are 20 different amino acids that can combine to make 1000s of proteins in the body!
AMINO ACIDS contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups.
Amino Acids (aa) aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 Peptide Bonds Proteins differ in the number and orderof amino acids its chain.Changes in the amino acid chainalter a protein’s structure and function.
Functions of Proteins: 1. Transport (ex. hemoglobin) 2. Regulation(ex. hormones) 3. Movement(ex. muscles) 4. Structure(ex. membranes, hair, nails) 5. Enzymes(ex. cellular reactions) 6. Defense(ex. antibodies)