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U.S. Entry into World War 2. Early War in the Pacific. US not ready for war Japan wins all early battles Take Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaya, Burma, Singapore, Dutch West Indies Including capturing the Philippines in early 1942 US territory

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early war in the pacific
Early War in the Pacific
  • US not ready for war
  • Japan wins all early battles
    • Take Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaya, Burma, Singapore, Dutch West Indies
    • Including capturing the Philippines in early 1942
      • US territory
  • “We can run wild for six months to a year” before US power would defeat us…
    • Japanese General Yamamoto
general douglas macarthur
General Douglas MacArthur
  • Leaves Philippines in April, 1940
  • Vows “I shall return.”
slide4

The Bataan Death

March, April 1942

Tens of thousands

of US & Filipino

soldiers marched

65 miles w/out

food or water &

tortured. 10,000

die.

the two theater war
The Two Theater War

European Theater Pacific Theater

europe first strategy
“Europe First” Strategy
  • US decides to focus on Germany & Italy before Japan. Why? *
    • Germany could win without Japan & not vice-versa
  • Question:
    • Where to begin in Europe?

*Actually, they begin offensives simultaneously, though emphasis is on Europe

operation drumbeat
Operation Drumbeat
  • German U-boat campaign in Atlantic
  • To cut off Allied supplies
  • Very successful at first
    • 800,000 tons a month by mid 1942
    • “the only thing that really scared” Churchill
  • US radar (new) finally limits damage
    • Average sub life = 3 months
operation torch november 1942
Operation Torch, November 1942
  • First Allied offensive
  • Attack on Axis begins in North Africa
    • Chosen for less chance of casualties
    • Also to let Hitler & Stalin fight it out?
      • Stalin thought so!
      • 80% of German army in Russia
  • Total victory in May 1943
the split within the allies
The Split within the Allies
  • England and US vs. the Soviet Union
    • Enemies before the War
    • Communism vs. Capitalism
    • Brought together by a common enemy
    • But do not trust each other
  • Casablanca Conference (Feb. 1943)
    • FDR & Churchill commit to an “unconditional surrender” from Germany
      • Mostly a promise to Stalin that US & Eng. won’t abandon Russia
operations avalanche shingle the invasions of italy
Operations Avalanche & Shingle: the Invasions of Italy
  • After North Africa
  • Mussolini driven out in June, 1943
  • Rome falls in June of 1944
  • Only Germany left in Europe
europe in 1944
Europe in 1944
  • England safe
  • North Africa & Italy captured
  • After Stalingrad—Germans being pushed out of USSR
  • Finally:
    • FRANCE!!!!
d day operation overlord1
D-Day (“Operation Overlord”)
  • June 6, 1944
    • 30 months after US entered War
    • Too long for Stalin
  • Allied forces take the coast of Normandy in Northern France
    • Recapture Paris by August
  • 3,000,000 troops
  • Hitler now all but defeated
the defeat of hitler
The Defeat of Hitler
  • “Battle of the Bulge” (Dec, 1944)
    • Hitler’s last offensive
    • Massive US casualties (90,000)
  • US & England attack from West
  • Soviet Union from East
  • Massive civilian bombings (Berlin, Dresden, etc.)
  • Both meet in Berlin
  • Hitler commits suicide, April 30, 1945
  • Germany surrenders, May 8, 1945
allied offensives
Allied Offensives
  • Battle of the Coral Sea: (May 1942)
    • actually a defensive victory for the Allies & considered by some to be the turning point of the war; protected Australia
    • Allies also gain a key defensive victory in the Battle of Midway June 1942, where Allies sink two Japanese aircraft carriers
  • Guadalcanal: (Aug. ‘42-Nov. ’42)
    • Under leadership of Gen. MacArthur, commander of US forces in SW Pacific, US begins island hopping strategy
allied offensives1
Allied Offensives
  • Solomon Islands Campaign: (June ‘43-Aug.’45)
    • Bloody series of battles in which both sides suffer heavy losses
    • Over at wars end
  • Mariana & Palau Islands Campaign: (Jun. ’44 - Nov. ‘44)
    • Included the Battles of Saipan, Guam, Peleliu & the Philippine Sea
  • Philippines Campaign: (Oct. ’44 - Mar. ’45) (a few minor skirmishes last until Aug. ‘45)
    • - Included the Recapture of Bataan & Battle of Manila
allied offensives2
Allied Offensives
  • Volcano & Ryukyu Islands Campaign: (Feb.-Jun.‘45)
    • Included the Battles of Iwo Jima & Okinawa;casualties mount
      • 20,000 at Iwo Jima (a rock)
      • 50,000 at Okinawa
    • Opened the way to Japanese mainland
    • With attack on Iwo Jima, Japanese increase kamikaze tactic of suicide air attacks on US ships (coupled with the banzai charges of the Japanese infantry, the “suicide” missions were said to have been derived from the Samurai culture, in particular, the bushido code)
  • Japan Campaign: (July ‘45 – Aug. ’45)
    • Included the Battle of Tokyo Bay
    • Despite massive civilian bombings at Tokyo, no surrender in sight
      • 80,000 die in one night
    • 1st usage of atomic bomb on Hiroshima (6th) and Nagasaki (9th)