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Objectives Overview. See Page 510 for Detailed Objectives. Objectives Overview. See Page 510 for Detailed Objectives. System Development. Page 510. System Development. Page 511 Figure 12-1. System Development. System development should follow three general guidelines:. Pages 510 - 512.

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objectives overview
Objectives Overview

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

See Page 510

for Detailed Objectives

objectives overview1
Objectives Overview

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

See Page 510

for Detailed Objectives

system development
System Development

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 510

system development1
System Development

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 511

Figure 12-1

system development2
System Development
  • System development should follow three general guidelines:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 510 - 512

system development3
System Development
  • System development should involve representatives from each department in which the proposed system will be used

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 511 - 513

Figure 12-2

system development4
System Development
  • Project managementis the process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development
  • To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project leader identifies the following elements:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 513 - 514

system development5
System Development

Popular tools used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activities are Gantt and PERT charts

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 514

Figure 12-3

system development6
System Development
  • Feasibility is a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 515

system development7
System Development
  • Documentationis the collection and summarization of data, information, and deliverables.
  • Maintaining up-to-date documentation should be an ongoing part of system development.

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 515

system development8
System Development
  • During system development, members of the project team gather data and information using several techniques

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 516

Figure 12-4

system development9
System Development
  • The planning phasefor a project begins when the steering committee receives a project request
  • Four major activities are performed:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 520

system development10
System Development
  • The analysis phaseconsists of two major activities:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 520 - 522

system development11
System Development

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 521

Figure 12-6

system development12
System Development
  • The system proposal assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution
  • The steering committee discusses the system proposal and decides which alternative to pursue

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 522 - 523

system development13
System Development
  • The design phase consists of two major activities

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 523

system development14
System Development
  • To acquire the necessary hardware and software:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 524

system development15
System Development
  • The next step is to develop detailed design specifications

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 525 - 526

system development16
System Development
  • Systems analysts typically develop two types of designs for each input and output

Mock-up

Layout chart

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 525 - 526

Figures 12-8 – 12-9

system development17
System Development
  • A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model of the proposed system’s essential functionality
    • Prototypes have inadequate or missing documentation
    • Users tend to embrace the prototype as a final system
    • Should not eliminate or replace activities

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 526

system development18
System Development
  • A prototype(proof of concept) is a working model of the proposed system’s essential functionality
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are designed to support one or more activities of system development

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 526 – 527

Figure 12-10

system development19
System Development
  • The purpose of the implementation phaseis to construct the new or modified system and then deliver it to users

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 528 - 529

system development20
System Development
  • Various tests should be performed on the new system

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 528

system development21
System Development
  • Traininginvolves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and software in the system
    • One-on-one sessions
    • Classroom-style lectures
    • Web-based training

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 528 - 529

Figure 12-11

system development22
System Development
  • One or more of four conversion strategies can be used to change from the old system to the new system
    • Direct conversion
    • Parallel conversion
    • Phased conversion
    • Pilot conversion

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 529

system development23
System Development
  • The purpose of the support and security phaseis to provide ongoing assistance for an information system and its users after the system is implemented

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 530

application development languages and tools
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • A programming languageis a set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enable a software developer to communicate instructions to a computer or mobile device
    • Low-level language
    • High-level language

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 531 - 532

application development languages and tools1
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • Machine language is the first generation of programming languages
  • Only language the computer directly recognizes

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 532

Figure 12-12

application development languages and tools2
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • Assembly languageis the second generation of programming languages
  • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes
  • A source programcontains the language instructions, or code, to be converted into machine language

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 532 - 533

Figure 12-13

application development languages and tools3
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 533

application development languages and tools4
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • The C programming language is used to write many of today’s programs

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 534

Figure 12-14

application development languages and tools5
Application Development Languages and Tools

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 534 - 535

application development languages and tools6
Application Development Languages and Tools

Compiler

Interpreter

Pages 534 – 535

Figures 12-15 – 12-16

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

application development languages and tools7
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • An object-oriented programming (OOP) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects
  • Other advantages include:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 535

application development languages and tools8
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
  • The Just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert the machine-independent code into machine-dependent code

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 536

Figure 12-17

application development languages and tools9
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • C++is an extension of the C programming language
    • Additional features for working with objects
  • Visual Studiois Microsoft’s suite of object-oriented application development tools that assists software developers in building programs and apps for Windows or any operating system that supports the Microsoft .NET Framework

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 536

application development languages and tools10
Application Development Languages and Tools

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 537

Figure 12-18

application development languages and tools11
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • A 4GL(fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural languagethat enables users and programmers to access data in a database
    • One popular 4GL is SQL

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 538

application development languages and tools12
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • Classic programming languages include:

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 538

application development languages and tools13
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • An application generator is a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality
    • Often bundled as part of a DBMS
  • A macrois a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task
  • You usually create the macro in one of two ways:
    • Record the macro with a macro recorder
    • Write the macro

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Pages 538 - 539

application development languages and tools14
Application Development Languages and Tools

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 539

Figure 12-19

application development languages and tools15
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • HTMLis a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the web

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 540

Figure 12-20

application development languages and tools16
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • XMLallows web developers to create tags that describe how information is displayed
    • WML is a subset of XML and is used to design pages specifically for microbrowsers

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 541

application development languages and tools17
Application Development Languages and Tools
  • Software developers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 542

application development languages and tools18
Application Development Languages and Tools

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 542

summary
Summary

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12

Page 545