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Chapter 26. Civil Rights Movement Section 1. Beginnings of The Civil Rights Movement. In 1896, the Supreme Court ruling Plessy v. Ferguson strengthened segregation. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was organized to fight discrimination. The 1940s.

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chapter 26

Chapter 26

Civil Rights Movement

Section 1

beginnings of the civil rights movement
Beginnings of The Civil Rights Movement
  • In 1896, the Supreme Court ruling Plessy v. Ferguson strengthened segregation.
  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was organized to fight discrimination.
the 1940s
The 1940s
  • After serving in the armed services in World War II, minorities wanted justice between the races at home.
  • When Branch Rickey hired Jackie Robinson, he helped to integrate Major League Baseball.
  • President Harry Truman ordered desegregation of the armed forces.
the 1950s
The 1950s
  • Segregation in the Schools
  • Thurgood Marshall argued for school desegregation in the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka.
  • In this case, the Court ruled to end school segregation.
  • In 1957, nine African American students tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
the 1950 s cont
The 1950’s Cont.
  • GovenorOrvalFaubuscalled in the state’s National Guard to keep them out.
  • President Eisenhower called in federal troops to protect the students.
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger.
  • The Women’s Political Council organized a boycott of buses on Parks’ trial day.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. urged African Americans to continue the boycott.
  • Some white leaders were outraged by the boycott. Some even bombed King’s home.
montgomery bus boycott cont
Montgomery Bus Boycott cont.
  • After the boycott went on for more than a year, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
chapter 261

Chapter 26

Civil Rights Movement

Section 2

the warren court
The Warren Court
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren believed the Constitution should be interpreted flexibly.
  • In Miranda vs. Arizona, the Court ruling expanded the rights of people accused of crimes.
  • In Tinker vs. Des Moines School District, the Court expanded the concept of freedom of speech.
kennedy s administration
Kennedy’s Administration

President Kennedy’s Domestic Goals:

  • End poverty
  • Fight disease
  • Ensure justice for all
  • Start space program

Programs Congress Agreed to:

  • Some anti-poverty programs
  • Space programs
johnson s administration
Johnson’s Administration


  • Great Society
    • Program Goal: Expand Opportunity and provide decent standard of living for all Americans
johnson s administration1
Johnson’s Administration


  • Head Start
    • Program Goal: Provide preschools for needy children


  • Medicare
    • Program Goal: to assist the elderly in paying medical bills
johnson s administration2
Johnson’s Administration


  • Medicaid
    • Program Goal: To assist the needy not covered by Medicare in paying medical bills


  • Food Stamps
    • Program Goal: To assist the needy in paying for groceries.
johnson s administration3
Johnson’s Administration


  • Welfare
    • Program Goal: To provide cash payments to the poor


  • H.U.D.
    • Program Goal: to oversee building of housing for low and middle income people.
chapter 262

Chapter 26

Timeline of the Civil Rights Movement

Section 3

  • Martin Luther King Jr. joins with other African American church leaders to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • Four African American college students refuse to leave a lunch counter, starting a type of protest known as a sit-in.
  • Freedom Rides take place to desgregate public transportation across state lines.
  • James Meredith tries to attend the University of Mississippi and riots break out
  • Massive demonstrations take place in Birmingham, Alabama, and police respond with violence.
  • Nearly 250,000 people come together to support civil rights legislation in the famous March on Washington.
  • President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. This act outlaws segregation, advances voting opportunities, bans job discrimination and speed up school desegregation.
  • In King’s march for voting rights, people walk from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. State troopers set upon marchers with tear gas, clubs, and whips.
  • Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which removes barriers to voting and allows federal officers to register African Americans.
  • Malcolm X, once a believer in black separatism, is killed.
  • Riots occur in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles in response to police brutality.
  • Thurgood Marshallbecomes the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. is killed.
  • Riotsoccur throughout the country.
  • Affirmative action, a program through which groups who were previously discriminated against get preferential treatment, is established. Critics argue that some groups have unfair advantages for jobs and education.
chapter 263

Chapter 26

Reform Movements

Section 4

the women s rights movement
The Women’s Rights Movement
  • Betty Friedmen’sThe Feminine Mystique criticized women’s limited role in society.
  • NOW’s goals were laws that would give women greater equality, that medical schools and law practices train and hire more women, day-care facilities for mother who worked outside the home, passage of ERA.
the women s rights movement1
The Women’s Rights Movement
  • Arguments for the ERA: to forbid any form of sex discrimination
  • Arguments against the ERA: would undermine traditional values, could force women into combat, could lessen women’s right to alimony, laws already gave women equality
the women s rights movement2
The Women’s Rights Movement
  • The 1963 Equal Pay Act ensured that men and women doing the same work receive the same pay
  • The Civil Rights Actof 1965 banned discrimination based on sex.
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, the number of women working outside the home and attending college increased.
mexican americans
Mexican Americans
  • In the Southwest, many Mexican Americans children went to Mexican schoolswhich were not as good as the all-white schools.
  • Mexican American World War II veterans formed the American GI Forum to challenge discrimination.
  • In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal to exclude Mexican Americans from juries.
mexican americans1
Mexican Americans
  • Cesar Chavez was one of the founders of the United Farm Workers. He organized a nationwide boycott of California grapes. The boycott led to grape growers signing a contract with the UFW.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1975 was important because it ensured bilingual elections.
  • Legislation for bilingual education was passed.
native americans
Native Americans
  • The National Congress of American Indians had some success in regaining land, water, and minerals rights for Native Americans.
  • The American Indian Movement was more militant. Armed members went to Wounded Knee. Its goal was to draw attention to past injustice to Native Americans.
older americans
Older Americans
  • Mandatory retirement means forcing people to retire once they reach a certain age.
  • The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) championed health insurance for retired Americans.
  • Maggie Kuhn formed the Gray Panthers to fight age discrimination.
americans with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities
  • Organizations for the disabled championed laws that would improve access to public buildings.
  • The Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975 guaranteed all children with disabilities would receive a free education.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act made it illegal to discriminate in hiring based on physical or mental disability.