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The Cold War and American Society. Chapter 21 – 3 The cold war heightened Americans' fears of Communist infiltration and atomic attack. When did the Red Scare Begin?. September 1945.

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The cold war and american society

The Cold War and American Society

Chapter 21 – 3

The cold war heightened Americans' fears of Communist infiltration and atomic attack.


When did the red scare begin
When did the Red Scare Begin?

  • September 1945.

  • Clerk named Igor Gouzenko carried documents revealing a massive effort by the Soviet Union to infiltrate organizations and government agencies in Canada and the United States.

    • Specifically they wanted information about the atomic bomb.

KGB intelligence


Subversion
Subversion

  • Had spies infiltrated the American government?


Loyalty
Loyalty

  • Federal employees were screened.

    • That didn’t calm people down!

  • People might be suspect for:

    • Reading certain books.

    • Belonging to various groups.

    • Traveling oversees.

    • Seeing certain foreign films.

  • No actual evidence against them was uncovered.


Huac house un american activities committee
HUAC (HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE

  • J. Edgar Hoover

Wanted to investigate Communist and Fascist activities in the U.S.

Public hearings on Communist subversion.

Wiretapped thousands of telephones.

FBI Headquarters


Alger hiss
Alger Hiss

  • In August 1948 Whittaker Chambers appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee and during his testimony claimed that Hiss had been spying for the Soviet Union. In a federal grand jury investigation of the case, Hiss denied Chambers's accusations. However, as a result of this investigation, Hiss was charged with perjury. His first trial in 1949 ended in a hung jury but the following year, a second jury found Hiss guilty and sentenced him to five years imprisonment. Hiss was released from prison in 1954. He spent the rest of his life trying to clear his name


The rosenbergs
The Rosenbergs

We are innocent!

Did they lead a Soviet spy ring?

Sold secrets of the atomic bomb?

Condemned to death for espionage.

Members of the Communist Party in N.Y.


Project venona
Project Venona

  • Solid evidence of Soviet espionage did exist, but many didn’t know it at the time.

  • 1946 Cryptographers cracked the Soviet spy code.

    • Messages between the Soviet Union and Moscow.

  • Government chose not to make the messages public.

    • 1995 the government revealed its existence.

      • Evidence that the Rosenbergs were guilty.


The red scare spreads
The Red Scare Spreads

  • State and local governments began their own efforts to find Communists.

    • Universities

    • Businesses

    • Unions

    • Churches

  • Loyalty Oaths