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Integrated Pest Management for Insects and Mites in Greenhouse Production. PSS 127 Greenhouse Operations and Management. What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?.

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integrated pest management for insects and mites in greenhouse production

Integrated Pest Management for Insects and Mites in Greenhouse Production

PSS 127 Greenhouse Operations and Management

what is integrated pest management ipm
What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?
  • An intelligent selection and use of pest-control actions that will ensure favorable economic, ecological and sociological consequences.1

1 R.L Raab 1972.

why ipm
Why IPM?
  • Collapse of Control Systems.
  • Pesticide resistance.
  • Loss of pesticide registrations.
  • Health risks associated with pesticides for agricultural workers and consumers.
  • Loss of natural enemies brought on new pest outbreaks.
why greenhouses
Why Greenhouses?
  • Controlled environments
  • Semi-closed or closed production areas
  • Discreet number of insect pests
  • Monoculture v.s. Polyculture
basic ipm
Basic IPM
  • Pest Identification
  • Monitoring or Scouting
  • Threshold and Action Levels
  • Tactics: Cultural, Mechanical, Physical, Biological, and Chemical
  • Evaluation
case 1 two spotted spider mite tssm
Case #1 Two Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM)
  • Tetranychus urticae
  • Huge host plant range
  • Oval body, four pairs of legs.
  • Pale yellow-green or red with a dark spot on each side of the body.
  • Known for developing resistance to many pesticides.
ipm steps
IPM Steps
  • 1. Identification: yes, TSSM
  • 2. Monitoring: How? What?
    • Use Scouting Methods.
    • Record Environmental Conditions.
scouting equipment
Scouting Equipment


Hand Lens

Sticky yellow trap cards

Scouting records

trap cards as scouting tools
Trap Cards as Scouting Tools
  • Yellow cards trap winged aphids, whiteflies, thrips, fungus gnats, and shore flies.
  • One card/250 – 1000ft2
  • Horizontal is better for trapping fungus gnats.
  • They may snag natural enemies too.
plant inspection
Plant Inspection
  • Look at:

New tip growth

Mature leaves

Senescent leaves

  • Return to known problem areas.
  • Avoid edges.
thresholds and action levels
Thresholds and Action Levels
  • Problems:
  • Growers want to avoid risks; especially with high value crops.
  • Once the threshold level is reached, the probability of partial or total crop loss is high.
ipm tactic 1 cultural control
IPM Tactic: 1. Cultural Control

Weeds outside the greenhouse

Weeds inside the greenhouse

Cultivar Selection


ipm tactic 2 mechanical control
IPM Tactic: 2. Mechanical Control
  • Using physical objects or devices to control pests.
  • Insect screening on intake vents, exhaust fans, and entrances.
  • 215-300 microns
  • Restricts air flow.
  • Electric Bug Zappers.
  • Insect Vacuums.
ipm tactic 3 physical control
IPM Tactic: 3. Physical Control
  • Altering environmental conditions to discourage pest infestation.
  • Temperature
  • Relative Humidity

Case #1 TSSM: High Humidity discourages TSSM flare-ups.

ipm tactic 4 biological control
IPM Tactic: 4. Biological Control
  • Definition: Biological control is any activity of one species that reduces the adverse effects of other species.
types of natural enemies
Types of Natural Enemies





case 1 tssm biological control predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis
Case #1 TSSMBiological Control - Predatory mite: Phytoseiulus persimilis

Two Spotted Spider Mite

Phytoseiulus persimilis


P.persimilis controls TSSM on cucumber, sweet pepper, tomato,

eggplant, bean, cut flowers, strawberries and many field crops.

bio control parasitism case 2 whitefly control common pest of greenhouse tomato
Bio-control: ParasitismCase #2 Whitefly ControlCommon Pest of Greenhouse Tomato

Greenhouse Whitefly

Silverleaf Whitefly

bio controls parasitic hymenopterans
Bio-controls: Parasitic Hymenopterans

Female Encarsia formosa

Greenhouse Whitefly Parasitoid

Silverleaf Whitefly Parasitoid

ipm tactic 5 chemical control
IPM Tactic: 5. Chemical Control
  • Old school:

Broad Spectrum pesticides

  • New school:

Bio-rational pesticides

pesticide efficacy
Pesticide Efficacy
  • Correct pest identification.
  • Most susceptible pest life stage.
  • Good coverage.
  • Proper dosage.
  • Avoid tank mixes.
  • Rotate chemical families.

Citrus Mealybug

bio rational pesticides
Bio-rational Pesticides
  • Look for compatibility with natural enemies
  • Specific target pest
  • Specific life stage (IGRs)
  • Short residual time
  • Short Restricted Entry

Interval (REI)

case 3 green peach aphid gpa myzus persicae
Case #3 Green Peach Aphid (GPA)Myzus persicae

Unwinged GPA adults and nymphs

Aphid damage

Winged GPA


natural enemies of myzus persicae
Natural Enemies of Myzus persicae

Chrysoperla carnea

Aphidoletes aphidimyza

Aphidius colemani

Mummified aphid

side effects of pesticides on natural enemies
Side Effects of Pesticides on Natural Enemies
  • Mortality of eggs, immatures or adults.
  • Reduced fertility.
  • Effect moulting.
  • Repellency
  • Successful Crop
  • Cost (materials, labor, health risks, environmental damage)
  • Multiple tactics?
  • Ease of operation
  • What would you do differently next season?
mealybug predator
Mealybug predator

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri