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大部荘と武家 - 室町時代を中心に- Warriors and Ôbe Estate in the Muromachi Period PowerPoint Presentation
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大部荘と武家 - 室町時代を中心に- Warriors and Ôbe Estate in the Muromachi Period

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大部荘と武家 - 室町時代を中心に- Warriors and Ôbe Estate in the Muromachi Period

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  1. 大部荘と武家-室町時代を中心に-Warriors and Ôbe Estate in the Muromachi Period 野田泰三 京都光華女子大学) Noda Taizô Kyôto Kôka Women’s University

  2. I.南北朝・室町期の守護の 分国支配と荘園 Estates and the Control of Provinces by Military Governors in the Nanbokuchô (1336-1392) and Muromachi (1392-1573) Periods

  3. I.1 守護支配の浸透The Establishment of Shugo Control 内乱期を通じ、播磨はしばしば前戦場に Harima: frequent battlefield during civil war period

  4. 国内荘園公領への様々な課役・夫役の賦課 城山城拵人夫・材木引人夫、鎌倉殿弘山御在所塀塗夫、兵粮米 Levies of material & labor on estates w/in the province Construction workers, porters, provisions for soldiers, etc. Ex.: workers on Shôgun Ashikaga Yoshiakira’s Harima stronghold 守護による戦争遂行体制の構築*Construction of a System of Military Mobilization by the Military Governor (Shugo) (1) *cf. 伊藤俊一“一国総動員体制” Itô Shun’ichi, “The Province-Wide Mobilization System”

  5. 寺社本所領の代官・沙汰人に対する軍事動員(「寺社本所代官着到」)寺社本所領の代官・沙汰人に対する軍事動員(「寺社本所代官着到」) 暦応年間(1338-42)、預所・公文代官らが西摂山系の南朝軍攻略に参陣 荘官側には守護の軍勢催促に応じることによって所領所職を確保する意図 賦課の恒常化により、「守護役」として定着 Officials of temple & shrine holdings mobilized troops 1338-42: Ôbe custodian & reeve joined shugo’s army in attack on southern court Thus guaranteeing their holdings & positions Levies regularized: permanent shugo yaku 守護による戦争遂行体制の構築*Construction of a System of Military Mobilization by the Military Governor (Shugo) (2)

  6. 守護は国衙機能、一国規模祭祀なども掌握し、国内秩序の担い手に守護は国衙機能、一国規模祭祀なども掌握し、国内秩序の担い手に 節季夫(若菜夫、八朔夫)など荘園公事の系譜を引く賦課 荘園経営を保障するのは形式上は幕府、実質的には守護 荘家から守護方(おもに郡代レベル)に対して日常的に恒例・臨時の礼物や夫役、物資(炭・茶・材木など)の提供・贈与、見返りに荘園経営が保障される Military governors assert control over existing system E.g., they appropriate seasonal laborers once levied by proprietor Bakufu formally guarantees security of estates; but de facto guarantor is the shugo Shugo exacted various levies in return for protection of estate officials’ rights

  7. I.2.播磨における寺社本所領Temple and Shrine Holdings in Harima 大部荘の浄土寺の浄土堂 Jôdodô, Jôdoji, Ôbe estate

  8. 丹波国土一揆以外蜂起之間、守護(細川持元)明日可遣人、仍寺社権門領等之領内ニ専此一揆在之、厳密ニ可致沙汰処、自方々被歎申時、被閣者不可有正体也、此由可得上意、次如播磨国諸権門領等可致其沙汰旨、可被下御教書旨、同申入了、条々不可有相違旨御返事在之、(『満済准后日記』正長2年2月5)丹波国土一揆以外蜂起之間、守護(細川持元)明日可遣人、仍寺社権門領等之領内ニ専此一揆在之、厳密ニ可致沙汰処、自方々被歎申時、被閣者不可有正体也、此由可得上意、次如播磨国諸権門領等可致其沙汰旨、可被下御教書旨、同申入了、条々不可有相違旨御返事在之、(『満済准后日記』正長2年2月5) • Temple & shrine holdings became hotbeds of peasant unrest • Bakufu, following the example of the Akamatsu in Harima, decided to crush the uprisings 土一揆 (1428-9)Peasant Uprisings

  9. 東寺領矢野荘、法隆寺領鵤荘、宍粟郡伊和社領など東寺領矢野荘、法隆寺領鵤荘、宍粟郡伊和社領など 守護方の対応 「就土一揆之事、矢野庄守護方ヨリ押置之由注進」 「地下押使入」 「庄家押使入」 「土一揆兵粮米」 (『廿一口方評定引付』) Uprisings on Tôji’s Yano estate, Hôryûji’s Ikaruga estate, and the holding of Iwa shrine in Shiso-gun Shugo takes action Sends agents to estates Violently represses uprisings & re-establishes control Levies provisions for soldiers to support military action 播磨の徳政一揆 (1428, 冬)Debt relief uprisings in Harima, winter 1428

  10. 寺社本所領は武家の介入を忌避する傾向、相対的に緩やかな支配寺社本所領は武家の介入を忌避する傾向、相対的に緩やかな支配 大部荘代官職請文:「守護方権門之者等」と契約しない文言 Temple & shrine holdings: relatively peaceful because they avoided warrior interference Document from Ôbe officials states that they did not make a contract with the shugo 土一揆の拠点としての寺社本所領To what extent were temple & shrine holdings the bases for uprisings?

  11. II. 嘉吉の乱後の守護職の交代と在地社会への影響Transfer of the shugo office after the Kakitsu rebellion and its influence on provincial society

  12. 嘉吉元年(1441)9月 赤松氏滅亡 →播磨守護職は三郡を除き山名持豊へ 1441/9: Akamatsu are defeated; Yamana Mochitoyo becomes shugo of all but 3 Harima districts (Akashi, Miki, Katô); 文安元年(1444)正月 三郡(明石・三木・加東)が赤松満政から山名氏へ;10月 赤松満政・同則尚ら播磨下向・挙兵(→翌年鎮圧) 1444/1: Yamana assume control of the 3 remaining districts 1444/10: Akamatsu Mitsumasa, Norinao raise troops in Harima; they were defeated the next year. 享徳3年(1454)11月 赤松則尚、播磨下向(→翌年5月備前で自害) 1454/11: Norinao enters Harima (commits suicide in Bingo, 1455/5) 守護職の交替Transfer of the shugo position

  13. 『建内記』嘉吉元年10月28日条): 西守護代宇野満貴は「近所之道場」に居住、「彼舎弟十一歳属守護山名手、仮彼勢威可支地下(高家荘)之由」 大部荘に入部する垂井中務丞 Kennaiki 1441/10/28: “Uno Mitsutaka, deputy shugo in the west, lives in a nearby dôjô. His 11-year-old brother serves the shugo (Yamana). He shall unjustly assume control of Takie estate.” Tarui Nakatsukasa no jô enters Ôbe estate 在地勢力の交代:赤松方被官の没落・牢籠、山名方の隆盛Changes in Local Power: Fall of the Akamatsu, Rise of the Yamana

  14. 「奪取寺社本所・武家人々所領年貢等、猛悪無度云々、「奪取寺社本所・武家人々所領年貢等、猛悪無度云々、 彼若補守護者、一国可滅亡歟云々」 「表濫吹之輩」 Yamana have “plundered rents that belonged to temple and shrine proprietors and the military;” their actions were “limitless savagery.” “The whole province will perish if they are appointed shugo!” They are “gangs of alien thugs.” II.2 新守護山名氏の支配Control by the new shugo, the Yamana

  15. 三郡寺社本所領に対する「郡散号」、代官・給人の配置三郡寺社本所領に対する「郡散号」、代官・給人の配置 寺社本所領の田数・年貢員数・長夫立帰夫の実情、本所直務の実否、赤松・満政期での本所直務・守護請の変更、闕所地の調査 強圧的な支配と荘園押領 寺社本所は幕府御教書 幕府-守護体制”に依拠 「存礼儀之輩如管領・畠山云々」 細川京兆家を中心に幕閣を構成し寺社本所保護を方針とする一派とそれに対抗的な派閥の形成(応仁大乱の萌芽) Yamana replace officials of temple & shrine holdings in Akashi, Miki, & Katô Oppressive control & invasions of estates Proprietors appeal to the bakufu Dependence on bakufu-shugo system “There are people of virtue, like the Hatakeyama deputy shoguns.” Conflicting policies w/in bakufu re shrine & temple holdings (seeds of Ônin war)

  16. II.2 享徳3年(1454)冬、大部荘百姓五郎左衛門の殺害Winter of 1454: the prominent Ôbe estate cultivator Gorôzaemon is murdered

  17. 「彼五郎左衛門者、数年此方為披官、子息五郎又別而扶持人候」「彼五郎左衛門者、数年此方為披官、子息五郎又別而扶持人候」 「図師職源左衛門尉所持分内、数年掠持之由」 「百姓五郎左衛門と申候者、常陸方(則尚)へ連々内通心さしお存候間、地下人等於以後其煩と申候て、去年十月丗日夜おしよせ、さた仕候処に、常陸方十一月ニ乱入候間、五郎左衛門か子おひたち方より地下ニすへられ候処候、今度ちくてん仕候、」 「就播州大部庄五郎さ衛門之跡事、自御屋形被付給主候」 Gorôzaemon:Yamana retainer who secretly plotted with Akamatsu Local people feared this would bring chaos to the estate, & therefore killed Gorôzaemon Local residents’ relationships with shugo influenced estates & caused unrest 五郎左衛門の殺害 (1454)Gorôzaemon’s assassination

  18. 守護方との被官関係→荘園現地に様々な影響と混乱守護方との被官関係→荘園現地に様々な影響と混乱 相論や政治的混乱を契機とした武家方の介入 公文職:王氏一族間での相論 → 豊福氏の掠給、足利義満による東大寺への寄進 図師職:山名氏の介入、応仁元年には赤松被官(上月源次郎・三島右京亮) 矢野荘でも赤松則尚没落時に例名に給主設置を企図 Shugo-retainer relationships influenced estates & led to conflict Warriors used disputes as a chance to intervene, e.g. Quarrel over the reeve’s position w/in the Ô family →Toyofuku invaded Yamana seized Gorôzaemon’s record-keeper position but lost it to Akamatsu retainer Yano estate: plots to put one person after another in charge after Akamatsu Norinao died 守護と荘園Military governors & estates

  19. 既成事実化により寺社本所領内部に武家領の形成既成事実化により寺社本所領内部に武家領の形成 Thus warrior fiefs formed within estates. . . →戦国期大名権力の基盤 And became the basis for the power of the Sengoku daimyô.