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Introduction Section. An Overview. Focusing a Topic. Focusing a Topic. Depression Depression in Adults Depression in Adults with Panic Disorder Depression in Adults with Panic Disorder who take a specific type of Panic Disorder medication

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focusing a topic1
Focusing a Topic

Depression

Depression in Adults

Depression in Adults with Panic Disorder

Depression in Adults with Panic Disorder who take a specific type of Panic Disorder medication

Depression in Adults with Panic Disorder who take a specific type of Panic Disorder medication who complain of Sleep Disorders

Question of Interest

What factors contributed to the Sleep Disorders?

what is an introduction
What is an Introduction
  • A synthesis of journal articles, books, and other documents that describe the past and current state of relevant information about your study.
why is an introduction necessary
Why is an Introduction Necessary?

It helps you:

  • Demonstrate a conceptual or theoretical framework to your research
  • Show key variables or concepts
  • Provide an historical background for your study
  • Show previous research that is similar to yours
  • Identifies scholars and theorists in your study area
  • Show the significance of your study
  • Show questions or tests previously validated
steps in preparing writing an introduction
Steps in Preparing & Writing an Introduction

Step 1: Identify key words or descriptors

Step 2: Create a search query

Step 3: Identify relevant literature sources

Step 4: Search the literature and collect relevant materials

Step 5: Critically read and analyze the literature

Step 6: Synthesize the literature

Step 7: Organize the literature

Step 8: Write the Introduction

synthesizing the literature
Synthesizing the Literature
  • Synthesis: the process of comparing, eliminating, and merging disparate pieces of information into one coherent whole.
  • Do not:

Discuss the literature as a series of previous studies.

Example: Jones says… Smith found…

Explain the relationship among them.

you synthesize the literature when you
You synthesize the literature when you…
  • Identify relationships among studies
  • Compare & contrast theories, concepts, and research studies
  • Comment on major themes and patterns you discovered
  • Discuss the pros & cons of the issues
  • Explain a conflict or contradiction among different resources
  • Point-out gaps in the literature
  • Note inconsistencies across studies over time
  • Make generalizations across studies
  • Make connections among the sources cited

Critique the Literature – do not duplicate it

rewrite with simplicity clarity
Rewrite with Simplicity & Clarity
  • Having arrived upon the scene, I initiated reconnaissance actions to determine the dispositions of the opposing forces and proceeded to attain the maximal strategic objective.
rewrite with simplicity clarity1
Rewrite with Simplicity & Clarity
  • I must be given maximum latitude to enjoy the benefits of our country, unfettered by degrading restrictions on my activities: if I am denied this privilege, I would prefer to be permanently eliminated from the exercise of my viable functions.
write scholarly paragraphs
Write Scholarly Paragraphs
  • A scholarly paragraph contains the following four elements
  • 1: Unity
  • 2: A Topic Sentence
  • 3: Coherence
  • 4: Adequate Development
unity
Unity
  • A single focus or main idea
  • Every sentence helps illustrate, explain, exemplify, or expand that main idea
  • When you move to a new idea, begin a new paragraph
topic sentence
Topic Sentence
  • A topic sentence states the central idea of the paragraph
  • It tells the reader what to expect about the information that follows
  • In academic writing, it usually works best at the beginning of a paragraph
example
Example

First main idea

- First supporting point

Evidence, argument, or example

Evidence, argument, or example

Evidence, argument, or example

- Second supporting point

Evidence, argument, or example

Evidence, argument, or example

Evidence, argument, or example

Second main idea, etc….

coherence
Coherence
  • The orderly presentation of ideas
  • A coherent paragraph has clearly connected sentences arranged in a logical order
  • Use transition words and phrases to pull ideas together and aid coherence (also, therefore, in addition, accordingly, etc.)
adequate development
Adequate Development
  • Ideas should be discussed fully and adequately
  • Length varies; however, two or three sentences are probably not full development