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Three important questions. Three important questions to ask: 1. Whether column % change? 2. Is the relationship significant? (.05 as chi square significance for bivariate relationship) 3. How strong is the relationship? Or what is the value of Cramer’s V?. Whether column % change?.

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three important questions
Three important questions
  • Three important questions to ask:
  • 1. Whether column % change?
  • 2. Is the relationship significant? (.05 as chi square significance for bivariate relationship)
  • 3. How strong is the relationship?
  • Or what is the value of Cramer’s V?
whether column change
Whether column % change?

Table 1

Class

Lower Middle Upper

Drink yes 50% 50% 50%

no 50% 50% 50%

Conclusion: No change (the same)

table 2
Table 2
  • Class
      • Lower Middle Upper
  • Drink yes 60% 65% 50% no 40% 45% 50% Conclusion: Not same – there is a change
where to look in spss result
Where to Look in SPSS Result?

Sample 1

Chi Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig

(2tailed)

  • Person Chi-Square .51 1 .45
  • Is .45 bigger or smaller than .05? Sig or not?
sample 2
Sample 2

Chi Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig

(2tailed)

  • Person Chi-Square .20 1 .02
  • Is .02 bigger or smaller than .05? Sig or not?
measures of association
Measures of association
  • The last question tries to examine how strong a relationship is b/w the two variables in crosstabulation.
  • How can you tell whether it is strong?
  • Use a measure called “CRAMER”S V (when both row and column variables are nominal or one of them is nominal).
range of measures of association cramer s v
Range of measures of association(Cramer’s V)

Range varies from 0.00 to 1.00

  • the closer to 1.00, the stronger the relationship.
  • The closer to 0.00, the weaker the relationship.
rule of thumb
Rule of Thumb
  • When measures of association such as Cramer’s V is:
  • 1. Below .10 --- indicate a Weak relationship b/w the variables
  • 2. Value b/w 0. 10 to 0.30 -- moderate relationship
  • 3. Value 0.30 above - -- indicate strong relationship b/w the variables.
where to find it in the output
Where to find it in the output?
  • Look for “ Symmetric Measures”
  • Example: Symmetric Measures
  • Value Apporx. Sig
  • Nominal
  • cramer’s V .23 .001
  • Conclusion: moderate relationship b/w the variables
example 2
Example 2
  • Symmetric Measures
  • Value Apporx. Sig
  • Nominal
  • cramer’s V .09 .21
  • Conclusion: weak relationship b/w the variables