A tool for s eparating specific biomolecules from a mixture (A key step in most biotechnology applications). Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis: movement of charged particles through a substance when an electric field is applied. http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/electrophoresis.html.
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movement of charged particles through a substance when an electric field is applied.
Electric field (direction of conventional current)
Physical features of biomolecules affect their ability to be separated from each other:
External Phosphates give DNA a net
Longer molecule means
a lot more atoms and
a few more negative charges.
As length increases, charge/mass ratio
Larger molecules go slower
DNA can be supercoiled - goes faster than when it is linear
Proteins can take on many different 3-D shapes – These are denatured in the gel so that they are all essentially linear.
∑F = FE + Ff = ma = 0
Biomolecules migrate at Terminal velocity
Who can resist a little Physics?:
H20 → H+ + OH-
2H+ + 2e-→H2(gas)
2H2O→ O2(gas) + 4H+ + 4e-
A little Chemistry:
496.42 g/ mol