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Engaging Them All

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  1. Engaging Them All Active Participation Strategies more students responding more often! September 7, 2010

  2. What is the difference between engaging students and entertaining students?

  3. Engage All Students in Every Lesson • “to attract and maintain a learner’s interest and active involvement in all lesson content and related tasks with clearly articulated ‘evidence checks’…” • Goal: increase academic discourse/activity for every student, every day • I do it. We do it. You do it. (Feldman, presentation, 2009)

  4. Determining Our Focus • Rate your understanding/use:

  5. What will I do to engage students? • Scans the room making note of when students are not engaged and takes overt action. • Uses academic games… • Uses response rate techniques… • Uses physical movement… • Uses pacing techniques… • Demonstrates intensity and enthusiasm… • Uses friendly controversy… • Provides opportunities to relate content with personal interests • Uses unusual/intriguing information about the content… (Marzano, presentation, 2010)

  6. Essential Questions & Objective • What will I do to help students interact with new knowledge? • What will I do to engage students? • What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? • Identify multiple ways to maximize student focus and engagement. • Clear Objectives • Frequent Checks for Understanding • Increasing responses of all students during academic discourse • Choral Response • Written Response • Quick Summary Techniques • Partner Response • Individual Response • Pass Option • Structured Academic Language

  7. Yes – No - Why • I share clear objectives with my students for every lesson, every day.

  8. Activity: Fill in the Blanks The questions that p____________ face as they raise ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not easy to an______. Both fa________ and m_________ can become concerned when health problems such as co___________ arise any time after the e__________ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch_________ should have plenty of s__________ and Nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g _______ should not share the same b__________ or even sleep in the same r__________.

  9. Now try this... • Objective: • Identify issues that poultry farmers face.

  10. Activity: Fill in the Blanks The questions that p____________ face as they raise ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not easy to an______. Both fa________ and m_________ can become concerned when health problems such as co___________ arise any time after the e__________ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch_________ should have plenty of s__________ and Nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g _______ should not share the same b__________ or even sleep in the same r__________.

  11. Answers The questions that poultrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis may arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks get plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost.

  12. Sharing Objectives What: • explanation and display of clear descriptions of what students will know and/or be able to do as a result of instruction • Identify multiple ways to maximize student focus and engagement. When: • beginning of lesson (segment) Why: • requires clarity of instruction • increase accurate focus and retention

  13. Essential Questions & Objective • What will I do to help students interact with new knowledge? • What will I do to engage students? • What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? • Identify multiple ways to maximize student focus and engagement. • Clear Objectives • Frequent Checks for Understanding • Increasing responses of all students during academic discourse • Choral Response • Written Response • Partner Response • Individual Response • Pass Option • Structured Academic Language

  14. Frequent Checks for Understanding What: • teacher solicited, observable evidence of student understanding or processing of new information • student response to instruction (must say, write, do) When: • after every 5 to 10 minutes of instruction Why: • appropriate adjustment of instruction (differentiation) • increase focus • long-term memory requires reorganization / accurate practice of new information

  15. Essential Questions & Objective • What will I do to help students interact with new knowledge? • What will I do to engage students? • What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? • Identify multiple ways to maximize student focus and engagement. • Clear Objectives • Frequent Checks for Understanding • Increasing responses of all students during academic discourse • Choral Response • Written Response • Partner Response • Individual Response • Pass Option • Structured Academic Language

  16. Yes - No - Why • Having students raise their hands to respond to questions/prompts is an effective way of checking for understanding and increasing student engagement.

  17. Unstructured Classroom Discussions “Merely tossing out provocative questions to the classroom stratosphere and inviting responses will not support these fragile readers and language users in responding competently and confidently...” “…unstructured discussions characteristically elicit learner passivity, default conversational register, selective listening and off-task behavior…all of which keep the status quo, the Mathew Effect, firmly in place…” (Feldman, 2009). • “unintentional inequity”

  18. Responding Methods • Checks for understanding • Provide rote / elaborative rehearsal • choral, partner, individual response • intentional, random, volunteer selection • perception checks • cell phone reception check, oil check, windshield check, weather report, thumbs up, fist of five, etc.

  19. Choral / Unison Response What: respond together on cue When: • answers are short and same (recall) • repetition of important terms/concepts • frequently Why: • focus tool • provides thinking time • all students responding • students using academic language (vs. teacher-talk) How: Explain, Model, Prompt, Practice

  20. Good Stuff & Missed Opportunities • What instructional techniques are likely to have positive results on competency and engagement? • What instructional missed opportunities do you notice?

  21. Individual Responses What: calling on individual students When: • (best) after written/structured partner response Why: • voice (rehearse) accurate information • voice multiple perspectives

  22. Individual Responses How: • purposeful selection vs. hand raising • ALL students think, write, do… • Intentional (or Purposeful) Selection • students with accurate answer (partners, writing, interview) • accurate rehearsal • RandomSelection (or “faux random”) • teacher calls on students • focus (everyone is on-the-hook) • Volunteer Selection • students volunteer • opportunity for elaboration, more voices in the room

  23. Written Response What: brief responses during instruction When: • elaborative response • initial individual response required Why: • writing first increases thinking, accountability, focus • provides teacher with concrete feedback • connects written language to oral language

  24. Summary Frames Marzano, 2001, p. 35-42 • Frameworks of questions (provided in advance by the teacher) to highlight critical elements • Different for various types of information and purposes • Narrative • Topic-Restriction-Illustration • Definition • Argumentation • Problem-Solution • Conversation

  25. The Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame • Topic: What is the general statement or topic? • Restriction: What information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general statement or topic? • Illustration: What examples does the author give to illustrate the topic or restriction?

  26. The Definition Frame • What is being defined? • To which general category does the item belong? • What characteristics separate the item from the other items in the general category? • What are some types or classes of the item being defined?

  27. The Argumentation Frame • Evidence: What information does the author present that leads to a claim? • Claim: What does the author assert is true? What basic statement or claim is the focus of the information? • Support: What examples or explanations support the claim? • Qualifier: What restrictions on the claim, or evidence counter to the claim, are presented?

  28. The Problem/Solution Frame Questions • What is the problem? • What is a possible solution? • Are there any other solutions? • Which solution has the best chance of succeeding?

  29. Statements of Learning • In one sentence and in your own words, explain what you learned about ___ as a result of our lesson. • Specify that students must include what they learned about the specific concept • Not: I learned how to summarize. • Instead: (I learned that) to summarize I should keep important information, get rid of unimportant stuff, and replace specific lists with general words. • Monitor and provide feedback! • Use quick desk checks, listen to groups • Address misconceptions • Model, provide examples • Use as exit ticket

  30. Topic Sentences • What is it about? • What was the author trying to tell you about it? TS = subject + author’s claim about subject Subject: Dogs Claim: make great pets if well-trained TS: Well-trained dogs make great pets.

  31. Noun Action Verb Object Write A Headline • Consider a chunk of information. • Write a short headline to summarize the information. Death, Insanity Dominate Shakespearean Tragedy

  32. Write News Article Beginning • Most information in first two paragraphs • Who? • What? • When? • Where? • Why? • How?

  33. R.A.F.T Response • Use writing to help students explore a concept from different perspectives and through different formats. • Role • Audience • Format • Topic • Differentiate: • Let students choose one or more components. • Raise Complexity – choose items farther from natural fit • Moderate/Lower Complexity – choose items closer to natural fit (Wormelli, R.) Example: Role: Barack Obama Audience: high school students Format: text message Topic: Obama’s economic plan

  34. Identify one word that sums up a particular concept or lesson Explain your choice in writing to a partner in a picture One-Word Summary • Most Important Step! • isolation of critical • attributes • relevance, validity

  35. Somebody (people)… wanted (motivation)… but (conflict)… so (resolution)… Something (independent var.)… happened (change)… and(affect on dependent var.)… then (conclusion)… Sentence Strings • Teacher provided frames to help students pick out important information The purpose of (source)is to _(inform, persuade, etc.) (audience) about (topic) by (methods—examples, description, facts, etc.)

  36. Draw or find a picture, diagram, or chart to represent the new information or concept. Explain your choice in writing to a partner or group Nonlinguistic Representation • Most Important Step! • isolation of critical • attributes • relevance, validity

  37. Kinesthetic Activity: Tableau • Students pose (freeze) in a position that represents the new information/concept. • Prompt students to pose in a formation that represents the concept. (Provide only a limited amount of time, 5 minutes, for brainstorming & formation.) • Require students to explain (speak or write) their tableau

  38. Graphic Organizer: Concept Map

  39. Draw a window with 5 panes. Write a single word or short phrase in each pane representing the most important ideas Connect these ideas/concepts in (1-3) sentences. Learner Summary: Mosaic

  40. Lotus Notes

  41. Summary Cubes • Record one important idea or concept per side. • Emphasize Bloom’s Taxonomy levels (one per side) • Use as a manipulative review stimulus • Try the biocube at www.readwritethink.org

  42. Non-Essential Characteristics Essential characteristics or definition in your own words. topic Examples (from own life) Non-Examples (from own life) Frayer Model

  43. Geometric Check This is an action I will take. These are the ideas going around in my head. This made me wriggle in my seat. three points I want to remember This (These) ideas square with my beliefs or current practice.

  44. Structured Partner Response What: • teacher-structured activity • student pairs share/discuss specific information When: • elaborative response • review recently learned information • before whole-class discussions Why: • increase focus, attention, academic language use, etc. • provides scaffold • increases opportunity for students to look good

  45. Structured Partner Response How: • teacher-selected partners • gracious middle with low • alternate ranking (readiness, social skills) • use base groups / assign roles (A and B / 1 and 2) • specific topic or task • structured academic language (i.e. sentence starters) • clear expectations • on-the-clock • monitor, provide scaffolding and feedback

  46. Structured Academic Language What: • teacher prompt to use specific academic language or syntax When: • any discussion questions or prompts Why: • beyond chatting • accurate rehearsal • students using academic language and syntax • provides scaffold to competently discuss topic

  47. Structured Academic Language How: • Provide initial phrasing of response or key terms expected in response • Model and practice (i.e. with choral response) • Require use in response (with partner, in writing, when selected) Sounds like: • I predict ___ because ___. • One consequence of the invention was a rise in __. • Two potential motives behind an author’s use of roman à clefinclude ___. • …your response must include the words “function” and “variable.”

  48. Ask all student the question. Pause (3+ seconds). Put students on-the-clock. “You have 30 seconds to share your answer with your partner.” Students share their thoughts with a partner. Select student(s) to respond. Intentional Selection: Call on a student visited Random Selection: Call on one or two more Volunteer Selection: Allow volunteer responses APL (Sharer, Anastasio, & Perry, 2007, p. 80-85) Interaction Sequence • Conference with 1 or 2 pairs • Check student answers • Probe • Provide answers when missing

  49. APL (Sharer, Anastasio, & Perry, 2007, p. 32-34) Time and Dignity: Pass Option • Best astemporary exit • “Tell me one thing you heard _(the previous responder)_ say.” • Allows time • Gather thoughts, composure • Refocus / re-engage • Requires teaching • Explain why • Teach what it looks like / sounds like • Communicate its temporary nature