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Second Half of Russia Presentation. Kelli Bennett Carly Garrison Josh Overcash Joseph Williams Melissa Williams. Social Stratification. Social Stratification was viewed from two different perspectives Antagonistic social classes

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second half of russia presentation

Second Half of Russia Presentation

Kelli Bennett

Carly Garrison

Josh Overcash

Joseph Williams

Melissa Williams


Social Stratification

  • Social Stratification was viewed from two different perspectives
    • Antagonistic social classes
    • Various groups of people who have relatively similar levels of political power, privilege and prestige.

Social Class

  • Concept of social class was based on Marxist theory
    • Defined especially by a person’s relations to the means of production.
  • Since 1936, the Soviet Union has been defined as a socialist society
    • Property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community

Stratification of Class

  • Two recognized classes:
  • 1. Working class
        • Laborers and Farmers
  • 2. Intelligentsia
        • Non-Laborers, Clerical and Administrative jobs

The Elite Class

  • Politicians
  • Managers of the largest production enterprises
  • Directors of educational, research and medical establishments
  • Senior military officials

In the USSR, social mobility was based on different principles at different stages of development

  • First three decade: upward mobility depended on meeting certain political requirements. Often promotions were based entirely on political criteria, at the expense of technical or other qualifications

Social Mobility


As the system matured, greater emphasis was put on education as a principle for advancement, and the society move more closely to meritocratic principles

  • Meritocratic: system of government or another organization wherein appointments are made and responsibilities are give based on demonstrated ability and talent rather then by wealth, family connections, class privilege, popularity, or other historical determinants of social positions and political power
  • Due to the ability of the intelligentsia to be more able to provide higher education, the intelligentsia became more self-recruiting. Thus, the more industrial the society became, the more rigid became the system of stratification




Pay differentials

    • Manual workers usually have six grades in their pay scale (Anywhere from 70 rubles per month to 210 rubles per month)
    • Elite Class: Ranges from 600 rubles per month to 2000 rubles per month.
  • Changes in social structure
    • The political revolution of 1917, was followed by an induces industrial revolution
      • Huge rise in employment
      • Higher access to education
      • Return on society rose
      • Higher rates in continuing education

Health Care

  • The Soviet Union developed a medial care network that was the world’s largest.
  • Developed a national health service
        • According to official principles:
      • Provided al the population with qualified medial care, free-of-charge, was unified and centrally planned.
  • In reality, the health care system was fragmented, and not unified.
  • Post-Soviet Union, still shortages of medicine, price rises in supplies, and falling wages prevent effective health care system.
    • Negative impact on society
    • Birth rates were passed for the first time in Russian history by the death rate.


  • Education is centrally planned
  • There are 2 ministries in charge
    • The Ministry of Education
    • The Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education

Pre School Education

  • Day nursery for children 6 months to 3years
  • Nursery School or kindergarten for children 3 to 6 or 7 years old.
  • Usually attended by children of urban families
  • Parents paid an income-related sum for meals and for optional foreign-language teachings.
  • Emphasis on “upbringing” (how to act, how to interact, etc)

Unified, coeducation, and free of charge.

  • Overall schooling experience was 11 years.
  • Types of General Education Schools
  • a. Primary Schools
    • 3 to 4 years of schooling
    • Ages 6 to 9/10
    • Modern curriculum
  • b. Middle Schools
    • Begins at age 9 or 10
    • 5 years of schooling in the Middle Schools
    • Curriculum
  • c. Senior Schools
    • Begins at age 14 or 15
    • This single path of education is divided into three.
    • 1. Two of these offer vocational or professional training
    • 2. Other is a two year senior stage of general schooling

General Education


Higher Education

  • Special schools
    • Those who excelled in
      • Arts
      • Sports
      • Mathematics and Science
      • Languages
    • 2. Those interested in military training
    • 3.Those with mental disabilities and handicaps
  • Higher education
    • Universities and colleges
    • Entrance was based on a competitive examination
    • Most courses (degrees) have been five-year programs, which are taught 6 days a week, with continuous assessments, and examinations at the end of each term

Method for Naming

  • A person has a given name at birth: first, middle, and last
  • From the given first name, there are 3 more types of names
    • Diminutive form –what the father would say
    • Endearing form –what the mother would say
    • Pejorative form –what friends would say
  • The middle name is a patronymic name from the father.
  • The last name is the family name and replaces the female’s last name at marriage.

Russian Family

  • To Russians, family is extremely important.
  • The familial unit is dependent on one another.
  • Urban families tend to be smaller and may live in apartments with 2 to 3 generations residing in a small space.
  • Rural families tend to be large
  • Both believe in the idea of the extended family, incorporating babushkas and dadushkas (grandmothers and grandfathers) into their daily living.
  • The elderly are treated with the utmost respect, even if they are not the grandparents of the person.

Russian Family

  • Average family size is 3
  • National population crisis
  • Infertile: abortion
  • Poverty

Women are ½ the active workforce (34.9 million)

  • Earn 1/3 what men earn
  • Specific fields
  • Legally, equal rights
    • Credit, education
    • “Personal dignity” (rape)
    • Versus religious?

Status of Women


Status of Women

  • Pregnant women; women with children
  • Marriage: 18, some circumstances 16

Polygyny is officially illegal

  • Traditionally monogamous
  • Muslim areas (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan); tolerated
  • Zhirinovsky & legalization

Status of Women


Wedding Traditions

  • Dowry traditional; ¼ father’s worth
  • Not practiced today
  • Still have traditions:
    • “ransom of the bride”
    • sharing the loaf
    • wedding feast

Status of Women

  • Prostitution
  • Little options
  • Young age
  • International

Short Quiz

Russia was formerly known as which of the below during the Communist rule?

Confederation of Russians


United Society of Communism

The Big Red

2. Russia’s population is…

Growing, but slowly

Growing rapidly


1. B 2. C


3. This religion is not found in a majority of Russia





4. Russian’s middle names come from which family member





5. On average, women are paid in what percentage to men





3. C 4.B 5. C


Picture Sources

Mel Williams (multiple) (multiple) (multiple) (multiple) (multiple)


Information Sources

Mel Williams

CIA Fact book

Russian Public Opinion Research Center

“How do you create a sense of shared identity in a country divided by race, language, and religion?” (Robert Parsons-New Bill on National Identity)

Brown, Archie, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia. Ed. Archie Brown, Michael Kaser, and Gerald S. Smith, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994