PREAMBLE OF OPERATING SYSTEMS. PREAMBLE STRUCTURE HOLLISTIC FIX KEY CONCEPT KEY RESEARCH AREA KEY APPLICATION INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION RESEARCH HOW WE STUDY KEY JOBS PROJECTS ONE CAN DO TRENDS. INDEX. PREMBLE STRUCTURE. 1.Ms. DEEPTI HASIJA & Ms. RITU MITTAL 2.Room No.:- 242
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PREAMBLE STRUCTURE • HOLLISTIC FIX • KEY CONCEPT • KEY RESEARCH AREA • KEY APPLICATION • INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION • RESEARCH • HOW WE STUDY • KEY JOBS • PROJECTS ONE CAN DO • TRENDS INDEX
1.Ms. DEEPTI HASIJA & Ms. RITU MITTAL 2.Room No.:- 242 3.Contact No.- 05613272026 4. E mail:- firstname.lastname@example.org 5. 01:00 – 02:00 P.M. (on every working day) TEACHERS INTRODUCTION
TEACHERS INTRODUCTION 1. ABHISHEK GUPTA (BMAS) 2. Room No. :-307 3.Contact No.:- 9411001117 4. email@example.com 5. 01:00 – 02:00 P.M. (on every working day) 5
TEACHERS INTRODUCTION 1. SUDEEP PANDEY(HCST) 2. Room No.:-220 3.Contact No. -219 4. firstname.lastname@example.org 5. 01:00 – 02:00 P.M. (on every working day) 6
PREREQUISITES • Basic Knowledge of computer organization. • Basic Knowledge of Design , Analysis of Algorithms and Data structure • Basic Knowledge of Compiler Construction • Basic Knowledge of Programming Language “C” HOLLISTIC FIX OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
HOLLISTIC FIX………Continued • PRE REQUISTES • (4th Semester) • Basic Principles of Computer Organization • Von Neumann Architecture
HOLLISTIC FIX OF OS………CONTINUED • PRE REQUISTES • (4th Semester) • Basic Principles of Data Structure 9
HOLLISTIC FIX OF OS………CONTINUED PRE REQUISTES Basic Principles of Compiler Construction 10
HOLLISTIC FIX OF OS………CONTINUED • PRE REQUISTES • (5th Semester) • Basic Principles of Design Analysis of Algorithm 11
ADVANCE COURSE (7th- 8th SEM) • Distributed System • Parallel Computing • Advance Computer architecture HOLLISTIC FIX OF OS………CONTINUED
SCOPE IN RELATED FIELDS… Mobile Communication System Programming Hardware Design and development Advance application framework development Mobile Computing And almost in every field ( eVery Computer needs an OS!!) HOLLISTIC FIX OF DC…….Continued
Key Concepts Related to OS • Process and programs • Process Synchronization & Inter process communication • Deadlock -prevention & handling • Memory management • Disk scheduling • File management
Process and programs Program is a passive entity where process is an active entity (process is program under execution)
Process Synchronization Critical section problem comes under process synchronizaion condition should satisfied 1.mutual exclusion 2.Progress 3.Bounded waiting
DeadLock In general, resources allocated to a process are not preemptable; this means that once a resource has been allocated to a process, there is no simple mechanism by which the system can take the resource back from the process unless the process voluntarily gives it up or the system administrator kills the process. This can lead to a situation called deadlock
Research areas in OS: • Intelligent I/O • Multiprocessor Systems • Locality-Aware Scheduling • Unified I/O Buffering • Resource Management • Kernel Structure • Real-Time Issues in OS • Distributed Shared Memory • Distributed File Systems • Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems • Distributed Servers • The OS projects range from designing operating systems for embedded platforms to scalable serversThe projects range from long-term research efforts to working with product groups to deliver cutting edge technology to customers. Research work in OS technology led to the development AIX running on IBM's server and supercomputer class hardware. CLICK HERE!!! KEY RESEARCH AREA OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
Key Jobs & Companies PRIVATE SECTOR http://www.bitpipe.com/tlist/Real-Time-Operating-Systems.html www.freertos.org/ htttp://www.ralyx.inria.fr/2008/Raweb/paris/uid89.html http://www.docstoc.com http://ie.sage.org/papers/case_study/introduction/ www.pumpkininc.com/ www.smxrtos.com/ www.keil.com/rl-arm/kernel.asp www.tnkernel.com/ www.techbites.com/.../z000c-ucos-iii-the-real-time-kernel.html www.lwn.net/Articles/160198/
Electronics Corporation of India Limited. www.ecil.co.in Bharat Electronics Limited. www.bel-india.com Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. www.hal-india.com Defense Research & Development Organization. www.drdo.org Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. www.bsnl.co.in PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS
The Aegis kernel is built around the idea of an exo-kernel. An evolution from micro-kernels, exo-kernels export a virtual machine that securely multiplexes resourses among mutually distrusting spplications. The exo-kernel philosophy tries to export as few abstractions besides the basic hardware abstractions as possible, and to implement as little policy in the kernel as possible. Like SPIN, Aegis relies on techniques such as downloading code into the kernel to make the system fast. Click Click Here! • Amoeba is a powerful micro-kernel-based system that turns a collection of workstations or single-board computers into a transparent distributed system. It has been in use in academia, industry, and government for about 5 years. CLICK HERE! • C EXECUTIVE is a operating system kernel for embedded applications - providing a small, efficient, real-time software environment for programs written in C. C EXECUTIVE, as small as 5 KB in ROM space, is available on 8-, 16- and 32-bit CISC and RISC processors, providing the foundation for a common, corporate-wide, portable software strategy. PSX provides a single-user, single-group, subset of POSIX.1, with up to 32,000 preconfigured processes. PSX adds a substantial subset of the POSIX.1 system calls to the basic C EXECUTIVE kernel. Using these calls allows applications to migrate from POSIX-conformant UNIX platforms to board-level systems, or vice versa CLICK HERE! • EROS (Extremely Reliable Operating System) is a new operating system being implemented at the University of Pennsylvania. The system merges some very old ideas in operating systems with some newer ideas about distribution and performance. The result is a small, secure, high-performance operating system that provides distributed orthogonal persistence.CLICK HERE! • Currently, modern workstation operating systems do not provide support for efficient distributed program execution in an environment shared with sequential applications. The goal of our research is to pool resources in a NOW to provide better performance for both parallel and sequential applications. To realize this goal, the operating system must support gang-scheduling of parallel programs, identify idle resources in the network, allow for process migration to support dynamic load balancing, and provide support for fast inter-process communication. CLICK HERE! • Masix is a distributed operating system, based on the Mach micro-kernel, currently under development at the MASI Laboratory. Its primary goal is the simultaneous execution of multiple personalities, in order to run concurrently on a same workstation applications from the Unix, DOS, OS/2 and Win32 worlds. Furthermore, Masix pools the resources of a workstation local area network, independently from the personalities that run on each node. Masix also provides distributed services to the personalities. CLICK HERE! Projects in Operating Systems
Trends….. continued Microsoft Windows (OS) Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems that originated as an add-on to the older MS-DOS operating system for the IBM PC. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT kernel that was originally intended for OS/2. Windows runs on x86, x86-64 and Itanium processors. Earlier versions also ran on the Alpha, MIPS, Fairchild (later Intergraph), Clipper and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). As of 2009, Microsoft Windows still holds a large amount of the worldwide desktop market share. Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers. In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research & development money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price/performance records (see the TPC) and significant acceptance in the enterprise market. Currently, the most widely used version of the Microsoft Windows family is Windows XP, released on October 25, 2001. In November 2006, after more than five years of development work, Microsoft released Windows Vista, a major new operating system version of Microsoft Windows family which contains a large number of new features and architectural changes. Chief amongst these are a new user interface and visual style called Windows Aero, a number of new security features such as User Account Control, and a few new multimedia applications such as Windows DVD Maker. A server variant based on the same kernel, Windows Server 2008, was released in early 2008. On October 22, 2009, Microsoft released Windows 7, the successor to Windows Vista, coming three years after its release. While Vista was about introducing new features, Windows 7 aims to streamline these and provide for a faster overall working environment. Windows Server 2008 R2, the server variant, was released at the same time. 28
Trends Continued….. Google Chrome OS On July 7th 2009 Google announced that they will be releasing an Operating System by the second half of 2010. Google Chrome OS will be designed to work exclusively with web applications. It will be an open source OS.
Trends Continued… Plan 9 Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix. Programmers at Bell Labs went on to develop Plan 9 and Inferno, which were engineered for modern distributed environments. Plan 9 was designed from the start to be a networked operating system, and had graphics built-in, unlike Unix, which added these features to the design later. Plan 9 has yet to become as popular as Unix derivatives, but it has an expanding community of developers. It is currently released under the Lucent Public License. Inferno was sold to Vita Nuova Holdings and has been released under a GPL/MIT license.
Trends Continued….. Real-time operating systems A real-time operating system (RTOS) is a multitasking operating system intended for applications with fixed deadlines (real-time computing). Such applications include some small embedded systems, automobile engine controllers, industrial robots, spacecraft, industrial control, and some large-scale computing systems. An early example of a large-scale real-time operating system was Transaction Processing Facility developed by American Airlines and IBM for the Sabre Airline Reservations System. Embedded systems that have fixed deadlines use a real-time operating system such as VxWorks, eCos, QNX, MontaVista Linux and RTLinux. Windows CE is a real-time operating system that shares similar APIs to desktop Windows but shares none of desktop Windows' codebase.Some embedded systems use operating systems such as Symbian OS, Palm OS, BSD, and Linux, although such operating systems do not support real-time computing.