Developing Graduate’s Competitiveness Edge through Standard and Standardization Minor Competence in the Engineering Disciplines by: Bambang PurwanggonoDiponegoro University, INDONESIA
Competence: • includes a broad range of knowledge, attitudes, and observable patterns of behavior which together account for the ability to deliver a specified professional service (McGaghie,et.al.,1978,WHO)
Quality programs in higher education level have been defined as to have these following characteristics: • Implementation of periodic self-evaluation • Availability of most recent vison, mission, and academic standards • Formulation of clear graduate’s competence • Provision of curriculum, teaching programs, and lecturers’ willingness to conduct teaching to facilitate learning
The meaning of competencies as described in the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Education Decree No. 232/U/2000 and No. 045/U/2002 • A set of thoughtful and responsible action that belongs to someone as requirements of ability to conduct tasks and jobs in the certain field of work • Directorate General of Higher Education within Ministry of National Education is responsible for supervising higher education programs in the country
Someone having competence must fulfill the following requirements: • ability of mastering knowledge and skill (know how and know why) • ability to perform (know to do) • ability to behave at work so that is able to show independency on the jugdement of responsible decision making (to be) • ability to live in the society by cooperation, respect each other, and value pluralism and peace (to live together) These are based on the four pillars of education set by UNESCO
Ministry of Education Decree No. 232/U/2000 states that: • a group of course subjects related to the personality development imposed upon all study programs mut al least to comprise: Religion Education, State Ideology, and Civics, also four pillars of higher education matched to the competence requirements: know how and know why, know to do, capable to be, and able to live together • Ministry of Education Decree No. 045/U/2002 which is about the guidance of core curriculum is complementary and to be obeyed nation wide.
Skills to Participate in the 21st Century Economy Mastery of core knowledge in content areas, particularly math/science and foreign language, thus gaining: • Conceptual comprehension of the content knowledge; • Procedural competency to use concepts; and • Problem solving ability to apply knowledge in a real-world, global context, both individually and as members of teams.
Personal responsibility and excitement about learning, acquiring • Life-long learning skills to continually value and enjoy learning; • A work ethic that encourages both independent learning and team participation; • Global citizenship through knowledge of the culture, language, and background of others; and • Skills to communicate clearly with others, both orally and in writing.
Ability to use 21st Century tools (ICT) so that they can • Use appropriate technology to motivate learning and facilitate communication, and • Demonstrate computer literacy skills in real world situations.
World Class Engineer I. Aware of the World • sensitive to cultural differences, environmental concerns, and ethical principles • alert to market opportunities (both high- and low-tech) • cognizant of competitive talents, work ethic, and motivation
World Class Engineer II. Solidly Grounded • thoroughly trained in the fundamentals of a selected engineering discipline • has a historical perspective and remain aware of advances in science that can impact engineering • realizes that knowledge doubles at breakneck speed and is prepared to continue learning throughout a career
World Class Engineer III. Technically Broad • understands that real-life problems are multidisciplinary • thinks broadly, seeing an issue in a rich context of various alternative, probabilities, etc., rather than a narrow quest to find a single answer (referenced in the back of the book) • is conversant in several disciplines • is trained in systems modeling and the identification of critical elements. Understands the need to design experiments to verify or extend analysis, as well as to meet specification requirements • is psychologically prepared to embrace any field necessary to solve the problem at hand
World Class Engineer IV. Effective in Group Operations • cooperative in an organization of individuals working toward a common creative goal that is often multidisciplinary and multifunctional in nature • effective in written and oral communication • willing to seek and use expert advice • cognizant of the value of time and the need to make efficient use of the time in all phases of an endeavor • understanding and respectful of the many facets of business operation -- general management, marketing, finance, law, human resources, manufacturing, service, and, especially, quality
World Class Engineer V. Versatile • innovative in the development of products and services • sees engineering as applicable to problem solving in general • considers applying engineering beyond the typical employment focus of engineering graduates in the manufacturing industries, to the much broader economy (financial services, health care, transportation, etc.) where engineering skills could make a dramatic improvement in the productivity of those segments of the economy that employ 80 percent of the U.S. population
World Class Engineer VI. Customer Oriented • realizes that finding and satisfying customers is the only guarantee of business success • understands that products and services must excel in the test of cost-effectiveness in the global marketplace
In 2003 the Republic of Indonesia has passed the Law No. 20 on the National Education System to set national education standards: • content standard • process standard • graduate’s competence • teaching staff standard • facilities and infrastructure standard • managerial standard • cost standard • educational assessment standard
Competence Standardization skills and knowlegde
Competitive advantage • Skills and knowledge in standards and standardization as a minor competence would be a plus point for graduates especially engineering graduates when they have to compete with other graduates from other universities • It is more on the issue of matching the need of industry with the graduates’ competence