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Summarizing and Note Taking

Summarizing and Note Taking

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Summarizing and Note Taking

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  1. Summarizing and Note Taking Effective Classroom Strategies

  2. Classroom Instruction That Works Effective Classroom Strategies

  3. Following Best Practices • Based on current research • meta-analysis of 2,455 studies pertaining to instructional practices • Includes latest knowledge, technology and procedures • Research continues through McRel • Successful across student populations • Applies across content areas and grade levels Effective Classroom Strategies

  4. Classroom Instruction That Works – Effect Size Effective Classroom Strategies

  5. Effect Size and the Normal Curve 2% 16% 50% 84% 98% 99.9% Effective Classroom Strategies

  6. Classroom Instruction That Works Effect Size • Effect Size is a unit of measure used with meta-analysis that expresses the increase or decrease in student achievement • Cohen simplified the range of effect sizes • Small: 0.20 to 0.49 • Medium: 0.50 to 0.79 • Large: 0.80 and above Effective Classroom Strategies

  7. The Instructional Strategy Focus for the Day • Summarizing and Note taking (ES 1.00) Effective Classroom Strategies

  8. Summarizing and Notetaking • Requires that students distill information into a concise, synthesized form and focus on important points. • Research emphasizes the importance of breaking down the process of summarizing into a structure that can be easily understood by students. • Verbatim note taking is the least effective note-taking technique • Students should be encouraged to revisit and revise their notes after initial recording them. • They should use different formats and make notes as complete as possible. Effective Classroom Strategies

  9. Summarizing and Note Taking • Both require students to distill information into a concise, synthesized form. • Effective learners are able to sift through a great deal of information, identify what is important and then synthesize and restate the information. Effective Classroom Strategies

  10. Summarizing Effective Classroom Strategies

  11. Warm-up • Reflect on your current summarizing beliefs using page 59 in handbook Effective Classroom Strategies

  12. Three modes of summarizing • Rule-based • Frames • Reciprocal Teaching Effective Classroom Strategies

  13. Steps for Rule-Based Summarizing Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. Delete redundant material. Substitute super-ordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g., use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut). Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing. Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students Take out material that is not important to your understanding. Take out words that repeat information Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple). Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up. Rule-Based Summarizing Effective Classroom Strategies

  14. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Effective Classroom Strategies

  15. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Effective Classroom Strategies

  16. Research generalizations on summarizing • Students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Summary Frames Effective Classroom Strategies

  17. The Six Summary Frames Narrative Frame Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame Definition Frame Argumentation Frame Problem/Solution Frame Conversation Frame Effective Classroom Strategies

  18. Narrative or Story Frame Characters: the characteristics of the main characters in the story; Setting: the time, place, and context in which the story took place; Initiating event: the event that starts the action rolling in the story; Internal response: how the main characters feel about and react to the initiating event; Goal: what the main characters decide to do as a reaction to the initiating event — the goal they set; Consequence: how the main characters try to accomplish the goal; Resolution: how the story turns out. (Components 3-7 are sometimes repeated to create what is called an “episode.”) Effective Classroom Strategies

  19. Narrative or Story Frame Frame Questions: Who are the main characters? What makes them different from others? When and where did the story take place? What was the situation at the time? What starts the action rolling in the story? How did the characters express their feelings? What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal? What was it? How did the main characters try to accomplish their goal? How does the story turn out? Did the main characters accomplish their goal? Effective Classroom Strategies

  20. Example Narrative Frame (handout) Effective Classroom Strategies

  21. T-R-I Frame for Expository Material • Topic (T): a general statement about the information to be discussed; • Restriction (R): statements that limit the information in some way; • Illustration (I): statements that exemplify the topic or illustrations. Effective Classroom Strategies

  22. T-R-I Frame Frame Questions: T: What is the general topic? R: What information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general topic? I: What examples does the author present to illustrate the topic or restriction? Effective Classroom Strategies

  23. Example T-R-I Frame(handout) Effective Classroom Strategies

  24. Definition Frame 1.Term: the subject to be defined (e.g., car); 2. Set: the general category to which the term belongs (e.g., vehicles for transportation); 3. Gross (general) characteristics: those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set (e.g., runs on the ground, has four wheels); 4. Minute differences: those different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the term (e.g., sedans, convertibles). Effective Classroom Strategies

  25. Definition Frame • Frame Questions: • What is being defined here? • To what general category does the item being defined belong? • What characteristics of the item being defined separate it from other items in the general category? • What are some different types or classes of the item being defined? Effective Classroom Strategies

  26. ExampleDefinition Frame(handout) Effective Classroom Strategies

  27. A summary is … • An essential condensation in your own words. • Answers the question “what is the author really saying?” • Is the result of careful “listening” to the author. • Remains faithful to the author’s emphasis and interpretation. • Does not disagree with or critique the author’s opinion. Effective Classroom Strategies

  28. A summary is … • A summary is a comprehensive but brief statement of what has been stated previously in a longer form. • A summary is a wrap-up----a general picture of the information--- much like TV networks produce at the end of a year. • Summaries provide a quick overview of a subject without having the reader wade through a lot of facts and details. Summaries help readers and writers boil information down to its most basic elements. • Encyclopedias, almanacs, and digests provide good examples of summaries. Effective Classroom Strategies

  29. Procedural Knowledge Summarizing is “procedural knowledge.” If students are expected to become proficient in procedural knowledge, they need to be able to “practice.” Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice. Practice sessions initially should be spaced very closely together. Over time, the intervals between sessions can be increased. Students also need feedback on their efforts. While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned. Effective Classroom Strategies

  30. A Rubric for Summarizing Effective Classroom Strategies

  31. What knowledge will students be learning? Planning for Summarizing • What strategy will I ask students to use? • Rule-based Summarizing Strategy • Summary Frames • Narrative or Story • TRI • Definition • Argumentation • Problem/Solution • Conversation • Group Enhanced Summary Strategy • Other ___________ • What specific information will students need to summarize? • film or video • chapter • lecture • story • article • event • other_______________ Do I need to set aside time to teach them the strategy? When and how? How much guidance will I provide them? How will I monitor how well students are doing? Effective Classroom Strategies

  32. Independent Practice • Read pg 74 in your handbook • Take up to 10 minutes to read and summarize using pages 75-76 • Discuss in your table group Effective Classroom Strategies

  33. Reflection • Fill out reflection form on page 81 Effective Classroom Strategies

  34. Note Taking Effective Classroom Strategies

  35. Goals • Introduce a formal approach for informal outlines • Highlight other graphical strategies Effective Classroom Strategies

  36. Cornell Notes Effective Classroom Strategies

  37. History of Cornell Notes • Developed in 1949 at Cornell University by Walter Pauk. • Designed in response to frustration over student test scores. • Meant to be easily used as a test study guide. • Adopted by most major law schools as the preferred note taking method. Effective Classroom Strategies

  38. First & Last Name Class Title Period Date Topic Questions, Subtitles, Headings, Etc. Class Notes 2 1/2” 3 to 4 sentence summary across the bottom of the last page of the day’s notes Effective Classroom Strategies

  39. Subject: Why take Cornell notes? Date: 11/20/01 P R O C E S S M a i n I d e a s ( i n p u t ) P R O C E S S M a i n I d e a s ( i n p u t ) ( o u t p u t ) ( o u t p u t ) Can be used to provide an outline of chapter or lecture. Organized by main ideas and details. How can Can be as detailed as necessary. Cornell notes Sequential -- take notes as they are given by instructor or help me text in an orderly fashion. organize my After class, write a summary of what you learned to ideas? clarify and reinforce learning and to assist retention. Can be used as study tool: Which side for 1. Define terms or explain concepts listed on left side. diagrams? 2. Identify the concept or term on the right side. Can be used to provide a "big picture" of the chapter or Why use lecture. concept maps? Organized by main ideas and sub-topics Limited in how much detail you can represent. Simultaneous - you can use this method for instructors who jump around from topic to topic. After class, you can add questions to the left side What are the Can be used as a study tool -- to get a quick overview benefits to me? and to determine whether you need more information or need to concentrate your study on specific topics. Effective Classroom Strategies

  40. Summary is added at the end of ALL note pages on the subject (not page) • Summary added AFTER questions • are finished • Summary should answer the problem stated in the subject. Effective Classroom Strategies

  41. Effective Classroom Strategies

  42. Rubric for Feedback Effective Classroom Strategies

  43. Other Note taking ideas • Concept webs • Flow charts • Venn Diagrams • Teacher-prepared guided notes • Cloze notes Effective Classroom Strategies

  44. Reflection • Please complete page 93 in workbook • Share with table Effective Classroom Strategies