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SOCIAL FORCES INFLUENCE HOW WE: THINK SEE FEEL KNOW. Basic Social Psychology Principles: A) SOCIAL COMPARISON: SOCIAL REALITY CONSENUAL VALIDATION SELF-GENERATED REALITY & SELF-FULFILING PROPHECY C) FUNDEMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR. SOCIAL INFLUENCE:

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Basic Social Psychology Principles:

  • A) SOCIAL COMPARISON:
  • SOCIAL REALITY
  • CONSENUAL VALIDATION
  • SELF-GENERATED REALITY & SELF-FULFILING PROPHECY
  • C) FUNDEMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
slide3

SOCIAL INFLUENCE:

HOW PEOPLE ARE INFLUENCED BY THE ACTUAL, IMAGINED, OR IMPLIED PRESENCE OF THERES (ALLPORT).

SOCIAL INFLUENCE IS ONE OF THE GREAT, GREAT INFLUENCES IN NATURE … TREMENDOUSLY POWERFUL … YET YOU CAN'T SEE IT" (ELLEN BERSCHEID).

slide4

CONFORMITY QUOTES

THAT SO FEW NOW DARE TO BE ECCENTRIC, MARKS THE CHIEF DANGER OF OUR TIME.

--- JOHN STUART MILL

“THAT WE HAVE FOUND THE TENDENCY TO CONFORM IN OUR SOCIETY SO STRONG THAT REASONABLY INTELLIGENT AND WELL-MEANING YOUNG PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO CALL WHITE BLACK IS A MATTER OF CONCERN. IT RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT OUR WAYS OF EDUCATION AND ABOUT THE VALUES THAT GUIDE OUR CONDUCT.”

--- ASCH, 1955, P. 34

slide5

SOCIAL INFLUENCE

INFORMATIVE(e.g., Sherif’s Research)

NORMATIVE (e.g., Asch’s Research)

slide6

SHERIF’S AUTOKINETIC STUDIES

MOVEMENTIN INCHES

SUBJECT 1

SUBJECT 2

SUBJECT 3

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

ALONE 1 2 3

slide7

NORMALIZATION

  • DIVERSITY OF OPINION (INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES)
  • INFLUENCE OF OTHERS (ESTABLISHMENT OF NORMS)
  • INFLUENCE OF DEVIANT OPINION(S); INNOVATION
slide9

FACTORS AFFECTING CONFORMITY

  • PERSONALITY (E.G., SELF-ESTEEM, AUTHORITARIAN)
  • GENDER (TYPE OF TASK)
  • GROUP SIZE (4-PERSON GROUP VS. TWO 2-PERSON GROUPS)
  • GROUP ATTRACTIVENESS
  • GROUP COHESIVENESS
  • COMMITMENT TO ONE’S OPINION
  • SOCIAL SUPPORT
slide10

% ERRORS

CONFORMITY LEVELS AS A FUNCTION OF GROUP SIZE

60

50

40

30

20

10

CONFORMITY LEVELS DID NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY AFTER THE GROUP SIZE WAS MORE THAN 4 OR 5 PEOPLE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

NUMBER OF PEOPLE DISAGREEING WITH SUBJECT

slide11

CONFORMITY AS A FUNCTION OF ACCEPTANCE BY A GROUP

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

HIGH AVERAGE LOW VERY LOW

GROUPS PRIOR RATING OF SUBJECTS DESIREABILITY

CONFORMITY WAS GREATEST AMONG PEOPLE WHO BELIEVED THE GROUP RATED THEM AS AVERAGE IN DESIREABILITY

slide12

COMFORMITY AS A FUNCTION OF COMMITMENT TO ONE’S OPINION

THE GREATER THE LEVEL OF COMMITMENT, THE LESS CONFORMITY IN THE FACE OF GROUP PRESSURE

6

5

4

3

2

1

NONE MAGIC PAD PAPER PAPER & HAND IN

COMMITMENT CONDITION

slide13

OTHER CONFORMITY ISSUES

  • PUBLIC COMPLIANCE VERSUS PRIVATE INTERNALIZTION
  • CONFORMITY, ANTI-CONFORMITY, & INDEPENDENCE
  • INFLUENCE OF A DEVIATE (KEY IS CONSISTENCY OF OPINION & AVOID BEING SEEN AS RIGID)
slide14

INFLUENCE OF MILGRAM’S STUDIES

  • NUMBER OF REPRINTS IN ANTHOLOGIES
  • TV DRAMA (10TH LEVEL)
  • MAGAZINE INTERVIEWS (E.G., ESQUIRE, HARPER’S
  • 60 MINUTES
  • BOOK (OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY)
slide15

Public Announcement

We Will Pay You $4.00 For One Hour of Your Time

Persons Needed for a Study of Memory

We will pay five hundred New Haven men to help us complete a scientific study of memory and learning. The study is being at Yale University.

Each person who participates will be paid $4.00 (plus 50 cents carfare) for approximately one hour’s time, We need you for only one hour there are no further obligations. You may choose the time you would like to come(evenings, weekends, or weekdays).

No special training, education, or experience is needed. We want:

Factory workers Businessmen Construction workers

City employees Clerks Salespeople

Laborers Professional people White-collar workers

Barbers Telephone workers Others

All persons must be between the ages of 20 & 50. High school and college students cannot be used.

Source: Adapted From Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, 1974, by Stanley Milgram.

slide16

OBEDIENCE QUOTES

“IT IS SURPRISING HOW DIFFICULT IT IS FOR PEOPLE TO KEEP SITUATIONAL FORCES IN MIND, AS THEY SEEK A TOTALLY PERSONALISTIC INTERPRETATION OF OBEDIENCE, DIVORCED FROM THE SPECIFIC SITUATIONAL PRESSURES ACTING ON THE INDIVIDUAL” (MILGRAM, 1974).

“ANY INTERPRETATION INVOLVING THE ATTACKER’S STRONG SADISTIC IMPULSES IS INADEQUATE. THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE MAJORITY OF THOSE WHO PARTICIPATED IN SUCH KILLINGS IS SADISTTICALLY INCLINED” (KELMAN, & HAMILTON, 1989, p.13, REGARDING THE MY LAI MASSACRE)

slide17

EXPERIMENT #

VARIATION

RESULTS

1-4

PROXIMITY

65% OBEDIENCE

5

HEART PROBLEM (PROTESTS AT VARIOUS LEVELS)

65% OBEDIENCE

6

PERSONNEL CHANGE

50% OBEDIENCE

7

CLOSENESS OF AUTHORITY

22% OBEDIENCE*

SUMMARY OF MILGRAM’S OBEDIENCE STUDIES

slide18

8

FEMALES AS SUBJECTS

65% OBEDIENCE

9

VICTIM'S CONTRACT

40% OBEDIENCE

10

INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT, MOVE TO DOWNTOWN SITE

48% OBEDIENCE

11

SUBJECTS CHOOSE LEVEL

38/40 PICKED 15-150 LEVELS

slide19

12

LEARNER DEMANDS SHOCK; EXP. SAYS STOP

All STOPPED

13

ORDINARY PERSON GIVES ORDERS

20% OBEDIENCE

13A

S AS BYSTANDER, 16 REFUSED IN #13; ACCOMPLICE TAKES ROLE OF SHOCKER

69% ALLOWED OBEDIENCE

14

AUTHORITY AS VICTIM

AT 150 ALL STOP

slide20

15

2 AUTHORITIES; EACH GIVE DIFFERENT COMMANDS

18/20 STOP

16

2 AUTHORITIES - 1 SERVES AS THE VICTIM

65% OBEDIENCE

17

2 PEERS - ONE ADMINISTRATOR

10% OBEDIENCE

18

PEERS GIVE SHOCK, S GIVEN A SUPPORT ROLE 

93% REMAINED IN ROLE

slide21

OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING OBEDIENCE RATES

  • SENSE OF URGENCY (TIME PRESSURE)
  • NO COMMUNICATION
  • STEP BY STEP INCREASES IN SHOCK LEVELS
  • STATE OF “AGENCY” (OTHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE)
slide22

ETHICAL ISSUES

  • USE OF DECEPTION (LACK OF INFORMED CONSENT)
  • HARNFUL LONG-TERM EFFECTS TO PARTICIPANTS
  • ADEQUACY OF DEBRIEFING
  • THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW (USE OF 4TH PROD)
slide23

THE 4 PRODS

  • PLEASE CONTINUE, OR PLEASE GO ON.
  • THE EXPERIMENT REQUIRES THAT YOU GO ON.
  • IT IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL THAT YOU CONTINUE.
  • YOU HAVE NO OTHER CHOICE, YOU MUST GO ON.
slide24

MILGRAM’S POSITION

  • UNDERSTANDING OF CRITICAL PHENOMENON
  • INSIGHT OF PARTICIPANTS
  • CRITICISM DUE TO NATURE OF FINDINGS
  • EVERY EFFORT TO DEBRIEF (PURPOSE OF STUDY, FOLLOW-UP REPORT & QUESTIONNAIRE, PSYCHIATRIC INTERVIEW 1 YEAR ALTER)
  • RESULTS UNEXPECTED
  • NO HARM TO PARTICIPANTS (ESPECIALLY LONG-TERM; MANY WOULD DO IT AGAIN)
six universal influence principles
SIX UNIVERSAL INFLUENCE PRINCIPLES
  • RECIPROCITY
  • SCARCITY
  • AUTHORITY
  • COMMITMENT
  • LIKING
  • SOCIAL VALIDATION
compliance strategies
COMPLIANCE STRATEGIES

STRATEGY PRINCIPLE

POSITIVE MOODS MAKE REQUEST IN A POSITIVE SETTING

INGRATIATION SAY FLATTERING THINGS

FAVORS DO A SMALL FAVOR FOR TARGET

FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR FOLLOW SMALL REQUEST WITH A MUCH

LARGER ONE

DOOR IN THE FACE FOLLOW A LARGE REQUEST WITH A

SMALLER ONE

LOW-BALL GET COMMITMENT ON FAVORABLE

TERMS & CHANGE CONDITIONS

REACTANCE GET COMMITMENT BY LIMITING CHOICE

ingratiation
INGRATIATION

He did something that, on the face of it, seems foolish and costly. Each month he sent every one of his more than 13,000 former customers a holiday greeting card containing a printed message. The greeting card changed from month to month (e.G., “Happy new year,” happy thanksgiving”) but the message printed on the face of the card never varied. It read, “I like you.” (Cialdini, 1988, p. 166).

foot in the door
Foot in the Door
  • Procedure: Small 1st request, followed by a larger 2nd request
  • Key Points:
  • 2nd request can be made by a different person
  • 2nd request can be on a different issue
  • Performing the 1st request is not essential. Agreeing to do it is sufficient
  • Principle: Commitment (Self-perception)
door in the face
Door in the Face
  • Procedure: Very large 1st request (refused), followed by a smaller request.
  • Key Points:
  • Both requests must be made by the same person
  • Perception of a concession/negotiation
  • Feeling of satisfaction within target
  • Principle: Reciprocity
that s not all
That’s Not All
  • Procedure:
  • Give original cost, then reduce it before the target responds
  • Give original cost, then add something “extra” before the target responds
  • Principle: Reciprocity