SOCIAL FORCES INFLUENCE HOW WE: THINK SEE FEEL KNOW. Basic Social Psychology Principles: A) SOCIAL COMPARISON: SOCIAL REALITY CONSENUAL VALIDATION SELF-GENERATED REALITY & SELF-FULFILING PROPHECY C) FUNDEMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR. SOCIAL INFLUENCE:
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
HOW PEOPLE ARE INFLUENCED BY THE ACTUAL, IMAGINED, OR IMPLIED PRESENCE OF THERES (ALLPORT).
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IS ONE OF THE GREAT, GREAT INFLUENCES IN NATURE … TREMENDOUSLY POWERFUL … YET YOU CAN'T SEE IT" (ELLEN BERSCHEID).
THAT SO FEW NOW DARE TO BE ECCENTRIC, MARKS THE CHIEF DANGER OF OUR TIME.
--- JOHN STUART MILL
“THAT WE HAVE FOUND THE TENDENCY TO CONFORM IN OUR SOCIETY SO STRONG THAT REASONABLY INTELLIGENT AND WELL-MEANING YOUNG PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO CALL WHITE BLACK IS A MATTER OF CONCERN. IT RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT OUR WAYS OF EDUCATION AND ABOUT THE VALUES THAT GUIDE OUR CONDUCT.”
--- ASCH, 1955, P. 34
INFORMATIVE(e.g., Sherif’s Research)
NORMATIVE (e.g., Asch’s Research)
ALONE 1 2 3
CONFORMITY LEVELS AS A FUNCTION OF GROUP SIZE
CONFORMITY LEVELS DID NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY AFTER THE GROUP SIZE WAS MORE THAN 4 OR 5 PEOPLE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
NUMBER OF PEOPLE DISAGREEING WITH SUBJECT
HIGH AVERAGE LOW VERY LOW
GROUPS PRIOR RATING OF SUBJECTS DESIREABILITY
CONFORMITY WAS GREATEST AMONG PEOPLE WHO BELIEVED THE GROUP RATED THEM AS AVERAGE IN DESIREABILITY
THE GREATER THE LEVEL OF COMMITMENT, THE LESS CONFORMITY IN THE FACE OF GROUP PRESSURE
NONE MAGIC PAD PAPER PAPER & HAND IN
We Will Pay You $4.00 For One Hour of Your Time
Persons Needed for a Study of Memory
We will pay five hundred New Haven men to help us complete a scientific study of memory and learning. The study is being at Yale University.
Each person who participates will be paid $4.00 (plus 50 cents carfare) for approximately one hour’s time, We need you for only one hour there are no further obligations. You may choose the time you would like to come(evenings, weekends, or weekdays).
No special training, education, or experience is needed. We want:
Factory workers Businessmen Construction workers
City employees Clerks Salespeople
Laborers Professional people White-collar workers
Barbers Telephone workers Others
All persons must be between the ages of 20 & 50. High school and college students cannot be used.
Source: Adapted From Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, 1974, by Stanley Milgram.
“IT IS SURPRISING HOW DIFFICULT IT IS FOR PEOPLE TO KEEP SITUATIONAL FORCES IN MIND, AS THEY SEEK A TOTALLY PERSONALISTIC INTERPRETATION OF OBEDIENCE, DIVORCED FROM THE SPECIFIC SITUATIONAL PRESSURES ACTING ON THE INDIVIDUAL” (MILGRAM, 1974).
“ANY INTERPRETATION INVOLVING THE ATTACKER’S STRONG SADISTIC IMPULSES IS INADEQUATE. THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE MAJORITY OF THOSE WHO PARTICIPATED IN SUCH KILLINGS IS SADISTTICALLY INCLINED” (KELMAN, & HAMILTON, 1989, p.13, REGARDING THE MY LAI MASSACRE)
HEART PROBLEM (PROTESTS AT VARIOUS LEVELS)
CLOSENESS OF AUTHORITY
SUMMARY OF MILGRAM’S OBEDIENCE STUDIES
FEMALES AS SUBJECTS
INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT, MOVE TO DOWNTOWN SITE
SUBJECTS CHOOSE LEVEL
38/40 PICKED 15-150 LEVELS
LEARNER DEMANDS SHOCK; EXP. SAYS STOP
ORDINARY PERSON GIVES ORDERS
S AS BYSTANDER, 16 REFUSED IN #13; ACCOMPLICE TAKES ROLE OF SHOCKER
69% ALLOWED OBEDIENCE
AUTHORITY AS VICTIM
AT 150 ALL STOP
2 AUTHORITIES; EACH GIVE DIFFERENT COMMANDS
2 AUTHORITIES - 1 SERVES AS THE VICTIM
2 PEERS - ONE ADMINISTRATOR
PEERS GIVE SHOCK, S GIVEN A SUPPORT ROLE
93% REMAINED IN ROLE
POSITIVE MOODS MAKE REQUEST IN A POSITIVE SETTING
INGRATIATION SAY FLATTERING THINGS
FAVORS DO A SMALL FAVOR FOR TARGET
FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR FOLLOW SMALL REQUEST WITH A MUCH
DOOR IN THE FACE FOLLOW A LARGE REQUEST WITH A
LOW-BALL GET COMMITMENT ON FAVORABLE
TERMS & CHANGE CONDITIONS
REACTANCE GET COMMITMENT BY LIMITING CHOICE
He did something that, on the face of it, seems foolish and costly. Each month he sent every one of his more than 13,000 former customers a holiday greeting card containing a printed message. The greeting card changed from month to month (e.G., “Happy new year,” happy thanksgiving”) but the message printed on the face of the card never varied. It read, “I like you.” (Cialdini, 1988, p. 166).