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NAWQA Nutrient Synthesis Past, Present, and Future. USGS Workshop on Nutrient Processes in the Upper Mississippi River Basin UMESC, LaCrosse, WI March 25 – 26, 2002 Jeff Stoner Dave Mueller Norm Spahr Tom Nolan Barb Ruddy Mark Munn Richard Alexander. NAWQA Past 1992 - 2000.

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Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

NAWQA Nutrient SynthesisPast, Present, and Future

USGS Workshop on Nutrient Processes in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

UMESC, LaCrosse, WI

March 25 – 26, 2002

Jeff Stoner

Dave Mueller

Norm Spahr

Tom Nolan

Barb Ruddy

Mark Munn

Richard Alexander


Nawqa past 1992 2000
NAWQA Past1992 - 2000

  • Status of streams and rivers

  • Status of ground water

  • Relations to land use to water quality

Streams (NO3+NO2, NO2, NH4+OrgN, NH4, TN, DP, OPO4, TP, DOC, SOC)

Ground water (NO3+NO2, NO2, NH4, OPO4, DOC)

Stream habitat, basin and well characteristics, soils, geology, land use and cover, chemical use


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Center Creek - Missouri - 760 km2

350

7

Sample

300

6

250

5

200

4

Predicted Nitrate (mg / L)

Streamflow (m3/s)

150

3

100

2

50

1

0

0

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

Water years 1994-95


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Total Phosphorus in Streams

Agricultural Areas


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Total Nitrogen in Streams

Agricultural Areas


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Total Nitrogen in Large Rivers

Mixed Land Use


Mean annual nitrogen in streams nawqa 25 50 75th percentiles 1993 98
Mean-Annual Nitrogen in StreamsNAWQA 25-50-75th percentiles (1993-98)

113 sites

75th

50th

169

38

25th

48


Extrapolating nitrate in ground water calibrated logistic regression model
Extrapolating Nitrate in Ground Water Calibrated Logistic-Regression Model


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Nitrate Probability in Shallow Ground Water

To be published in ES&T,

B.T. Nolan and others, 2002



Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Influence of Land Use on Water Quality and Aquatic Biology in Small Streams and Ground WaterUMIS NAWQA Study Unit


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Streams in Small Streams and Ground Water

Ground Water


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Nutrient yields are largest in streams in Small Streams and Ground Water

draining agricultural areas


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Interrelations Between in Small Streams and Ground WaterPhysical, Chemical and Biological Variables, even for Large Rivers, may best be Explained by Study-Unit Investigators

Sediment

Nitrite + nitrate

Chlorophyll a

Phosphorus


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Major Tributaries Have Opposite Influences in Small Streams and Ground Water

on Main Stem TN and TP Concentrations


Nutrient questions from umis nawqa
Nutrient Questions from UMIS NAWQA in Small Streams and Ground Water

Sources and Transport of Agricultural Chemicals in Streams and Ground Water

  • What is the source of phosphorus/sediment in the Minnesota River? Bank erosion? Streambed erosion?

  • How do differing agricultural practices influence the sources and transport rates of agricultural chemicals in streams and ground water?

  • What is the relative contribution of contaminants from ground water, land surface runoff, and tile drains?

    Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Agricultural Streams

  • How do management practices influence the rate of nutrient assimilation in streams?

  • Does nutrient enrichment contribute to the presence of toxic algae in agricultural streams?


Nawqa present
NAWQA Present in Small Streams and Ground Water

  • Status of streams and ground water (add data from study units begun in 1997)

  • Nutrient relations to land use and seasons

  • Final summary results of the Midwest synoptic for algal-nutrients relations in streams (S.D. Porter)

  • Planning the next 10-yr. cycle


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Seasonal in Small Streams and Ground WaterTotalNitrogen in Streams

Agricultural Areas

Undetermined

Combinations of colors indicate multiple

Seasons

Winter (January-March)

Spring (April-June)

Summer (July-September)

Fall (October-December)

seasons of high concentrations, ex. winter-spring


Nawqa future 2001 2011
NAWQA Future in Small Streams and Ground Water2001 - 2011

  • Reduced to 42 study units.

  • Status of streams and ground water continued.

  • Changes in water quality (8 – 12 yr.) and why.

  • Better explain relations to land use and biogeochemical processes.


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Start Year in Small Streams and Ground Water


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Stream Sites in the NAWQA Trends Program in Small Streams and Ground Water

Compare: 505 to 145 sites; 1st to 2nd decade


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

NAWQA Trend Sites on Large Rivers in Small Streams and Ground Water

(2001 – 2010+)


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

NAWQA Trend Sites on Targeted Land Use in Small Streams and Ground Water

(2001 – 2010+)


N utrient e nrichment e ffects t opic neet
N in Small Streams and Ground Waterutrient Enrichment Effects Topic (NEET)

Determine how biological communities and processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment in agricultural streams from contrasting environmental settings.

  • Define the relations between biological communities and nutrient conditions in streams.

  • Describe how biological processes and nutrients interact at the watershed and reach scale.

  • Determine whether the relations between biological communities and nutrient conditions can be extrapolated to unmonitored areas.


Usepa research needs
USEPA Research Needs in Small Streams and Ground Water

  • Periphyton chlorophyll measurements

  • Algal growth requirements

  • Stream models that include periphyton

  • Stream bank, riparian zone, and denitrification

  • Dissolved oxygen and pH amplitude

  • Community effects (ecoregions, metrics, indicator taxa)

  • Fluvial geomorphology as a controlling factor

  • Whole stream enrichment studies

  • Seasonal relationships between nutrient and biomass


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Solar in Small Streams and Ground Water

Land UseNutrients SedimentPesticides

Wooded riparian corridors

Water clarity

Shading

Habitat -cover-food

Algal Seston

Filter Feeders

SW flux

Immigration

Invertebrates

Export

Drift

Scrapers Collectors

GW flux

Benthic Algae

Nutrient uptake

DO, pH, SOC relations

Fish & Wildlife

GW-SW relationsSoil Permeability


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

NEET Stratification in Small Streams and Ground Water


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

Factors used to define hydrologic landscape regions in Small Streams and Ground Water

Precip – Potential evapotranspiration

Percent sand

Aquifer permeability

Topography


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

  • Hydrologic landscape regions in Small Streams and Ground Water

  • A statistical clustering (20) of hydrologically important landscape and climate factors

  • Among-region variability in the factors is maximized and within-region variability is minimized


Nawqa nutrient synthesis past present and future

  • Proposed data collection scheme in Small Streams and Ground Water

  • Stratified by hydrologic landscape

  • ~ 28 basins (avoid nesting)

  • Constrain flow

  • Large nutrient gradient

  • Measure stream habitat


Summary nawqa nutrients synthesis

Past in Small Streams and Ground Water

Large and consistent nutrients data base for streams and ground water at multiple scales.

Relations to broad categories of land use.

Future

Continue status of nutrients conditions and improve confidence in statistical correlations to land use on other physical factors.

A consistent look at time trends and why.

Improve understanding of biogeochemical processes within streams and near hyporheic zones (NEET) .

Summary NAWQA Nutrients Synthesis