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# 《 道路交通系统建模与仿真 》 Transportation System Modeling and Simulation

《 道路交通系统建模与仿真 》 Transportation System Modeling and Simulation. ( 双语教学 ) Faculty of Transportation, KMUST 2010.3. Part 3 Application of Simulation 第三部分 仿真应用. Chapter 9 Simulation Application for Road transportation System 第九章 道路交通系统仿真应用. CONTENTS.

## 《 道路交通系统建模与仿真 》 Transportation System Modeling and Simulation

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1. 《道路交通系统建模与仿真》Transportation System Modeling and Simulation (双语教学) Faculty of Transportation, KMUST 2010.3

2. Part 3 Application of Simulation第三部分 仿真应用 Chapter 9 Simulation Application for Road transportation System 第九章 道路交通系统仿真应用

3. CONTENTS • Introduction to the Road Traffic System Simulation • Introduction to the Road Traffic Simulation Software---VISSIM • Introduction to the Application of VISSIM--- Some Cases of Kunming

4. 9.1Introduction to the road traffic system simulation道路交通系统仿真介绍 • What is the characteristics of a road traffic system? random dynamic complex open

5. Basic conception基本概念（根据仿真对象和仿真目的不同） • Microscopic simulation • Macroscopic simulation • Area traffic planning simulation （TRIPS，TRANSCAD）

6. Difference区别 • Microscopic simulation: single driver and vehicle and its reciprocity characteristics； • Macroscopic simulation: traffic flow characteristics, average behavior • traffic volume, traffic density , average vehicle velocity

7. Advantages and Disadvantages 优缺点 Macroscopic simulation: 1、Lower computing time and lower storage ； 2、Easy to understand the outcome of the simulation;3、Difficult to know the dynamic procedure of the traffic situation on the road ； 4、The random influence of every vehicles doesn’t be considered because of the average data； 5、Can’t to computer the of the vehicles 。

8. Applying Fields 适用范围 • Microscopic simulation • Dynamic traffic situation • When the driver-vehicle-unit is considered • Intersection traffic situation

9. 9.2 Basic Factors for Microscopic Simulation Model 微观仿真模型的基本要素 1、 road condition 2、vehicle arrival 3、vehicle characteristic 4、expectation vehicle velocity 5、reciprocity among vehicles 6、lane changing and overtaking/passing

10. Basic factors for macroscopic simulation model 宏观仿真模型的基本要素 1、vehicle arrival 2、 mutual influence model

11. 9.3 Flow Chart of the Simulation Procedure交通系统仿真流程

12. 9.4 Introduction to Transportation System Simulation Model 交通系统仿真模型介绍 1、 road establishment model Static model Geometry characteristic,lane partition, segregate area, road shoulder width, pavement type, fixed traffic mark

13. 9.4 Introduction to Transportation System Simulation Model 交通系统仿真模型介绍 2、 traffic generate model The basic model Probability distributing ,random variable， Poison distribution ,binomial distribution, negative exponent distribution

14. 9.4 Introduction to Transportation System Simulation Model 交通系统仿真模型介绍 3、traffic following model • The most important dynamical model; • restricting, delaying, passing • stimulate-reaction model • safety distance model • physiology-psychology modal • obscure reasoning modal • Cellular automata (CA) are models that are discrete in space, time and state variables. The latter property distinguishes CA e.g. from discretised differential equations. Due to the discreteness, CA are extremely efficient in implementations on a computer.)

15. 9.4 Introduction to Transportation System Simulation Model 交通系统仿真模型介绍 4、lane-changing model The basic dynamic model Judgment and compulsary lane-changing model

16. 9.4 Introduction to Transportation System Simulation Model 交通系统仿真模型介绍 5、 Queuing model 6、Intersection delay model 7、Macroscopic traffic simulation model

17. 9.5 Introduction to the software VISSIM道路交通流仿真软件VISSIM 介绍 • 1 What is VISSIM? VISSIM is a microscopic, time step and behavior based simulation model developed to model urban traffic and public transit perations. The program can analyze traffic and transit operations under constraints such as lane configuration, traffic composition, traffic signals, transit stops, etc., thus making it a useful tool for the

18. 9.5 Introduction to the software VISSIM道路交通流仿真软件VISSIM 介绍 • Evaluation of various alternatives based on transportation engineering and planning measures of effectiveness. • VISSIM can be applied as a useful tool in a variety of transportation problem settings.

19. A Selective Overview of Previous Applications VISSIM仿真应用范围 • Development, evaluation and fine-tuning of transit signal priority logic. • VISSIM can use various types of signal control logic. In addition to the built-in fixed-time functionality there are several vehicle actuated signal controls identical to signal control software packages installed in the field. • VISSIM has been used to evaluate and optimize traffic operations in a combined network of coordinated and actuated traffic signals.

20. A Selective Overview of Previous Applications VISSIM仿真应用范围 • VISSIM has been used to evaluate the feasibility and impact of integrating light rail into urban street networks. • VISSIM has been applied to the analysis of slow speed weaving and merging areas. • VISSIM allows for an easy comparison of design alternatives including signalized and stop sign controlled intersections, roundabouts and grade separated interchanges.

21. A Selective Overview of Previous Applications VISSIM仿真应用范围 • Capacity and operations analyses of complex station layouts for light rail and bus systems have been analyzed with VISSIM. • Preferential treatment solutions for buses (e.g. queue jumps, curb extensions, bus-only lanes) have been evaluated with VISSIM.

22. A Selective Overview of Previous Applications VISSIM仿真应用范围 • With its built-in Dynamic Assignment model, VISSIM can answer route choice dependent questions such as the impacts of variable message signs or the potential for traffic diversion into ighborhoods for networks up to the size of medium sized cities.

23. Traffic Simulation Process in VISSIMVISSIM的交通仿真过程 VISSIM consists internally of two different programs: Exchanging detector calls Signal status through an interface. The simulation generates an online animation of traffic operations and offline the generation of output files gathering statistical data such as travel times and queue lengths.

24. Traffic Simulation Process in VISSIMVISSIM的交通仿真过程 The traffic simulatoris a microscopic traffic flow simulation model including car following and lane change logic. The signal state generatoris a signal control software polling detector information from the traffic simulator on a discrete time step basis (as small as one tenth of a second). It then determines the signal status for the following second and returns this information to the traffic simulator.

25. Traffic Simulation Process in VISSIMVISSIM的交通仿真过程 Communication between traffic simulator and signal state enerator Essential to the accuracy of a traffic simulation model is the quality of the actual modeling of vehicles; e.g. the methodology of moving vehicles through the network. In contrast to less complex models using constant speeds and deterministic car following logic

26. Traffic Simulation Model in VISSIMVISSIM的交通仿真模型 Important Model psycho-physical driver behavior model • Developed by WIEDEMANN (1974).Introduction to the Vehicle Following model

27. Parameters of Traffic Simulation Model in VISSIM仿真模型参数 • Length • Maximum speed • Potential acceleration • Actual position within the network • Actual speed and acceleration

28. Behavior of Driver-Vehicle-UnitVISSIM中人车单元的行为 • Psycho-physical sensitivity thresholds of the driver (ability to estimate, aggressiveness) • Memory of driver • Acceleration based on current speed and driver’s desired speed

29. Interdependence of Driver-Vehicle-UnitsVISSIM中人车单元间的相互影响 • Reference to leading and following vehicles on own and adjacent travel lanes • Reference to current link and next intersection • Reference to next traffic signal

30. Flow Chart of the Simulation Procedure利用VISSIM 进行仿真的过程框图 • Reference to the next page

31. 路 网 标 定 机动车特性设定 路 径 分 配 路网交通流量输入 公交系统设置 信号灯、让行规则设置 运行仿真，得到评价结果，如旅行时间、延误、排队长度、路网车密度等。 与现有实测数据进行比较 不匹配 匹配 对标定后的路网按改造要求进行修改，形成新方案的仿真路网。运行仿真，得到新的评价结果。 比较现状与新方案的评价指标，得出方案的优劣。

32. 9.6 Introduction to How to Use VISSIMVISSIM 工具使用介绍 • Click to the interface ---the software of VISSIM. VISSIM

33. 9.7 Introduction to Some Cases of VISSIM ApplicationVISSIM应用实例介绍 • 1）昆明市城市交通整治项目应用实例介绍 • 2）昆明城市立交仿真应用实例介绍

34. Introduction to the Application of VISSIM --- Some Cases of Kunming Faculty of Transportation Engineering Road Tranffic Simulation Lab

35. Background项目背景 2002年以前，昆明主城区的交通拥挤、堵塞状况严重，同时随着城市人口规模的扩大、机动车数量的迅猛增长，交通问题也愈加严峻。因此，昆明市有关部门在2002年上半年编制了《昆明城市交通与环境综合整治——近期项目及对策措施》，提出了一揽子行动计划，其中“二环十字”改造工程项目是昆明交通综合整治工程措施的重要内容之一，于2002年下半年开始实施。

36. Background项目背景 • 受昆明市建设局的委托，由昆明理工大学交通学院组织牵头，并联合市规划院、市交警支队单位共同进行“昆明城市交通综合整治及近期实施方案研究”项目。项目期限为2002年6月－2003年6月。

38. APPLICATION VISSIM在项目中的应用 1 所用VISSIM概况 VISSIM3.70、仿真范围<10公里 2 仿真区域选取 昆明市城市布局为单中心同心圆模式，以昆百大、正义路为中心，一环路、二环路形成同心圆。城区主要道路由“三横、四纵、两环”主干道和支路组成。南北向交通由北京路、五一路、春城路、西昌路承担，而东西向交通主要由东风路、人民路、金碧路承担。仿真区域选取了近期交通整治中所需进行调整的区域，包括金碧路、东风路、人民中路、正义路、北京路、五一路、西昌路、春城路、国防路、建设路等路段所组成的路网区域。

39. APPLICATION VISSIM在项目中的应用

40. APPLICATION VISSIM在项目中的应用 3 仿真交叉口、路段概况 25Intersections 11 Sections 4 仿真区域截屏图

41. APPLICATION VISSIM在项目中的应用 • 5 仿真效果图

42. 6 仿真结果 进行路网标定后，运行仿真程序，得到仿真结果。主要对核心区的六个主要路口的排队长度和平均延误进行评价。 APPLICATION VISSIM在项目中的应用 核心区内平均行程车速为20.39km/h，比现状实测车速16.52 km/h提高23.4%； 交叉口平均延误降为21.8秒，比现状实测延误24.6降低11.4%。 结论：在不改变路口信号控制的条件下，改造后结果优于改造前，此方案应该是可行的。

43. VISSIM在昆明市中心区近期交通整治方案中的应用Other applications 昆明理工大学交通学院 课题组

44. Other Applications VISSIM在昆明市交通中的其它应用 1 环路高架及下穿方案仿真 实例：五华体育馆高架、北站路口下穿、董家湾高架、北京路口下穿仿真 2 单行方案 实例：如安街－富春街片区、建设路（师大附中）单向管理仿真评价

45. 五华体育馆高架

46. 北站路口下穿

47. 董家湾高架桥仿真

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