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Photosynthesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: the process in which chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun and convert this light energy into chemical energy (stored in sugar/organic molecules) Autotroph : “self-feed” Ability to sustain themselves without eating other organisms

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Photosynthesis: the process in which chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun and convert this light energy into chemical energy (stored in sugar/organic molecules)

  • Autotroph: “self-feed”
    • Ability to sustain themselves without eating other organisms
    • Make organic molecules from inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment (CO2, H2O, minerals)
    • Plants, protists, and prokaryotes
    • Biosphere producers
slide4

Heterotroph: “other-feed”

    • live on compounds produced by other organisms (unable to produce their own food)
    • Biosphere consumer
parts of the leaf
Parts of the Leaf
  • Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis
    • All of the green parts of the plant which contain chlorophyll-green pigment (stem, unripe fruit, LEAVES)
    • Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll which drives the synthesis of food molecules in chloroplasts
slide6

Chloroplasts are found mainly in the mesophyll(tissues in the interior of the leaf30 to 40 chloroplasts in one mesophyll cell)

slide7

Stomata (stoma): site of gas exchange

- CO2 in the leaf and O2 /water vapour out the leaf

slide8

Roots: water is delivered to the leaves veins (xylem)and sugar is exported to the roots via the veins (phloem)

structures of a chloroplast
Structures of a Chloroplast
  • Stroma: fluid within the chloroplast
    • Analogous to the ______of a mitochondrion
  • Thylakoid: flattened membranes that contains chlorophyll
  • Grana: stacked thylakoids
    • Analogous to the _______of a mitochondrion for more surface area
chemical equation
Chemical Equation

6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2

Or reduced equation:

CO2 + H2O + light  CH2O + O2

two stages of photosynthesis
Two Stages of Photosynthesis
  • Light reactions (photo)
  • Calvin cycle (synthesis)
  • Light Reactions:

-occurs in the thylakoid of chloroplasts

-light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to an electron acceptor NADP+

slide13

-NADP+ temporarily stores energized electrons

-water is split in the process and therefore the light reaction of photosynthesis gives of oxygen as a by product

-NADP+ gets reduced (gains 2 electrons and an hydrogen ion) by solar power and forms NADPH  this generates ATP by powering a phosphate to ADP

slide14

-This synthesis of ATP ( P + ADP ) is called photophosphorylation.

** Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of two compounds:

1. NADPH (energized electrons)

2. ATP (energy currency of cells)

calvin cycle
Calvin Cycle

-also known as dark reactions or light independent reactions

-YET occurs in the light because it is powered by ATP and NADPH which require light

-process involves synthesis of sugar (carbohydrate)

-occurs in the stroma(fluid)

slide16

-Carbon fixation: incorporating CO2 from the air into an organic compound

-the fixed carbon is then reduced (gains electrons) to form a carbohydrate

-fixed carbon is able to be reduced due to the NADPH reducing power and ATP produced by the light reaction